Science of Happiness Research


S-1: Mindfulness strengthens parts of the brain connected with emotion regulation, happiness, learning & memory, and perspective-taking

  • Kilpatrick, L.A., Suyenobu, B.Y., Smith, S.R. et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage.
  • Hölzel, B.K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M. et al. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research.

S-2: Health benefits of savoring

  • Weinstein, N. & Ryan, R. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for pro-social behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology.
  • Bryant, Fred and Veroff, Joseph. (2006) Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology.
  • Bryant, F.B. (2003) Savoring beliefs inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savoring. Journal of Mental Health.

S-3: Positive emotion regulation and well-being

  • Quoidbach, J., Berry, E.V., Hansenne, M., Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotion regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and Individual Differences.

S-4: Mindfulness trains the brain for happiness

  • Davidson, R. J. & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience.
  • Epstein, Robert (2011). "Fight the Frazzled Mind", Scientific American Mind.
  • Epstein, Robert. (2010). "What Makes A Good Mind?" Scientific American Mind.
  • Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M. Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin.

S-5: Benefits of meditation

  • Ditto, B., Eclache, M., & Goldman, N. (2006). Short term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan meditation. Annals of Behaviral Medicine.
  • Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta analysis. Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
  • Kilpatrick, L.A., Suyenobu, B.Y., Smith, S.R., et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage.
  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-Based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice.

S-6: Impact of mindfulness meditation on brain and immune function

  • Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J. et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine.

S-7: Capitalizing on good news

  • Langston, C. A. (1994). Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Bryant, F.B. & Veroff, J. (2006). A four-factor model of perceived control: Avoiding, coping, obtaining, and savoring. Journal of Personality.

S-8: Benefits of capitalization

  • Gable, S.L., Reis, H.T., Impett, E.A. & Asher, E.R. (2004). What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me when things go right? Social support for positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Reis, H.T. & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of Personal Relationships: Theory, Research, and Interventions. John Wiley and Sons.

S-9: Benefits of laughing with spouse

  • Bazzini, D. G., Stack, E. P., Martinicin, P. D., & Davis, C. (2007). Remember when we...?”: The effects of reminiscing about laughter on relationship satisfaction. Motivation and Emotion.
  • Fraley, B., & Aron, A. (2004). The effect of shared humorous experience on closeness in initial encounters. Journal of Personal Relationships.

S-10: Savoring memories

  • Bryant, F. B., Smart, C. M., & King, S. P. (2005). Using the past to enhance the present: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence. Journal of Happiness Studies.

S-11: Flow and optimal experience

  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Csikszentmihalyi, Isabella Selega. Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Moneta, G.B., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). The effect of perceived challenges and skills on the quality of subjective experience. Journal of Personality.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.
  • Nakamura, J. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009)Flow Theory and Research , in Lopez, S. & Snyder, R. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology (2nd edition).

S-12: Mindfulness-based stress reduction

  • Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research.
  • Shapiro, M., Brown, K. W. & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology.

S-13: Effect of thought-stopping on mood

  • Teasdale, V. & Rezin, J.D. (1978). Effect of thought-stopping on thoughts, mood, and corrugator EMG in depressed patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy.

S-14: Benefits of distraction

  • Brockner, J. & Hulton, A.J.B. (1978). How to reverse the vicious cycle of low self-esteem: The importance of attentional focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Caldwell, N.D. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2008). The How of Happiness. Penguin Books.

S-15: Mind-wandering leads to less happiness

  • Killingsworth, M.A., & Gilbert, D.T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science.

S-16: Effects of meditation-training on the brain

  • Desbordes, G., Negi, L.T., Pace, T.W.W. et al. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

S-17: Benefits of loving-kindness meditation

  • Hutcherson, C.A., Seppälä, E.M., & Gross, J.J. (2008). Lovingkindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion.
  • Fredrickson, B.L., Cohn, M.A., Coffey, K.A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S.M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Salzberg, Sharon. (2011) Real Happiness: The Power of Meditation. Workman Publishing.
  • Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsek, T., Algoe, S. B., Brantley, M. & Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science.

S-18: Brain enters meditative state when you enter green spaces

  • Aspinall, P., Mavros, P., Coyne, R, & Roe, J. (2013). The urban brain: analysing outdoor physical activity with mobile EEG. British Journal of Sports Medicine.

S-19: Savoring the future: Benefits of joyfully anticipating future events

  • Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2008). The How of Happiness. Penguin Books.
  • Dunn, Elizabeth & Norton, Michael. (2013). Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending. Simon & Schuster.
  • Schacter, D.L. (2012) Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory. American Psychologist.
  • Ostby, Y. et al (2012) Mental Time Travel and Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in the Developing Brain.

S-20: Reframing negative thoughts boosts resilience

  • Brinol, P. (2012). Treating thoughts as material objects can increase or decrease their impact on evaluation. Psychological Science.
  • Seligman, M. E. (2002) Newsweek.

S-21: Looking at nature activates parts of brain linked to emotional stability and optimism; boosts creativity

  • Kim, G., Jeong, G., Kim, T. et al. (2010). Functional neuroanatomy associated with natural and urban scenic views in the human brain. 3.0T Functional MR Imaging. Korean Journal of Radiology.
  • Atchley RA, Strayer DL, Atchley P (2012) Creativity in the Wild: Improving Creative Reasoning through Immersion in Natural Settings. PLoS ONE

S-22: Spending on experiences, not material objects, leads to happiness in long run

  • Hill, G., Howell, R.T. (2009) The mediators of experiential purchases: Determining the impact of psychological needs satisfaction and social comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology.

S-23: Boost mood with a positive portfolio

  • Fredrickson, Barbara. (2009). Positivity.

S-24: Daydreaming boosts creativity

  • Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Mrazek, M.D., Kam, J.W.Y., Franklin, M.S., Schooler, J.W. (2012). Inspired by Distraction: Mind Wandering Facilitates Creative Incubation. Psychological Science.

S-25: Mindfulness enhances relationships

  • Barnes, S., Brown, K.W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W.K., Rogge, R.D., (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.
  • Carson, J.W., Carson, K.M. et al. (2003) Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy.

S-26: Mindfulness aids working memory and flexible thinking

  • Jha, A.P., Stanley, E.A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion.
  • Siegel, D.J. (2007) Reflections on The Mindful Brain: A Brief Overview Adapted from The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being.

S-27: Yoga boosts mood, reduces stress

  • Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Christian, L., Preston, H., et al. (2010). Stress, inflammation, and yoga practice. Psychosomatic Medicine.
  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The SuperStress Solution. New York: Random House.

S-28: Bliss is linked to longevity

  • Tonya L. Jacobs, Elissa S. Epel, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Owen M. Wolkowitz, David A. Bridwell, Anthony P. Zanesco, Stephen R. Aichele, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Katherine A. MacLean. Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2010

S-29: Importance of being present during our social interactions

  • Dutton, J.E. (2003). Fostering high-quality connections. Stanford Social Innovation Review.

S-30: Mindfulness meditation reduces anxiety

  • Zeidan, F., Martucci, K.T. et al. (2013). Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.

S-31: Yoga improves brain function

  • Gothe, N., Pontefex, M.B. et al. (2012). The acute effects of yoga on executive function. Journal of Physical Activity & Health.

S-32: Spacing out our indulgences allows us to enjoy them more

  • Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E. (Forthcoming) Give it up: A strategy for combatting hedonic adaptation. Social Psychological and Personality Science.
  • Nelson, L.D., Meyvis, T., Galak, J. (2009) Enhancing the television-viewing experience through commerical interruptions. Journal of Consumer Research.
  • Nelson, L.D., Meyvis, T. (2008) Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research.

S-33: People procrastinate enjoyable experiences

  • Shu, S., Gneezy, A. (2010) Procrastination of enjoyable experiences. Journal of Marketing Research.

S-34: Focusing on places we haven't visited ramps up thrill of traveling, even to nearby locations

  • Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E., Bustin, G, et al. (Forthcoming) The Price of Awesomeness: How a Wealth of Experiences Impoverishes Savoring.

S-35: Interacting with strangers or treating partners as strangers can boost joy in interactions

  • Dunn, E., Biesanz, J., Human, L., et al. (2007) Misunderstanding the affective consequences of everyday social interactions: the hidden benefits of putting one’s best face forward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

S-36: Benefits of relaxation for physical and emotional health

  • Broadbent, E. et al. (2012). A brief relaxation intervention reduces stress and improves surgical wound healing response: A randomized trial. Brian, Behavior, & Immunity.
  • Benson, Herbert. (2000). The Relaxation Response. New York: HarperTorch.
  • Hanson, Rick. (2013). Hardwiring Happiness. New York: Harmony Books.
  • Rees, B. (2011). Overview of outcome data of potential meditation training for soldier resilience. Military Medicine.

S-37: Interacting with nature results in a cognitive boost, reduces stress & anxiety, preserves positive mood

  • Berman, M.G., Jonides, J. & Kaplan, S. (2008). The cognitive benefits of interacting with nature. Psychological Science.
  • Bratman, G.N. et al. (2014) The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition. Landscape and Urban Planning.

S-38: Looking at nature makes us feel more connected, caring, generous

  • Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A.K., & Ryan, R.M. et al. (2009). Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

S-39: Benefits of progressive muscle relaxation

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

S-40: Benefits of tai chi

  • Jin, P. (1992). Efficacy of tai chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research.

S-41: The benefits of looking at art

  • Jones, Daniel P. and Peart, Karen. (2009). "Class Helping Future Doctors Learn the Art of Observation," Yale News.

S-42: The benefits of reducing noise in our lives

  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

S-43: The joy we get from a happy experience grows over time; joy from material purchases fade over time

  • Carter, T., Gilovich, T. (2010)The relative relativity of material and experiential purchases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

S-44: Our experiences are constantly resculpting the brain

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-45: When good experiences become encoded in neural structure, negative moments are a less powerful influence on happiness

  • Fredrickson, B.L. et al (2003) What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crisis? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the U.S. on 9/11/01. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Fredrickson, B.L., Levenson, R. (1998) Positive Emotions Speed Recovery from the Cardiovascular Sequelae of Negative Emotions. Psychology Press.

S-46: Savoring good experiences rewires brains for more resilience, happiness, plus better health and relationships

  • Tugade, M.M., Fredrickson, B.L. (2007) Regulation of Positive Emotions: Emotion Regulation Strategies that Promote Resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-47: Recognizing stable good conditions can give us a sense of comfort, security and relief

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-48: Knowing that both pleasantness and unpleasantness are constantly changing can actually help us feel better when we’re in a negative place

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-49: To find what’s fresh in your commonplace positive experiences, you can look for unexpected rewards

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-50: Practicing mindfulness strengthens lateral networks of brain

  • Farb, N.A.S., Segal, Z.V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., & Anderson, A.K.(2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reflection. SCAN.

S-51: Couples who put a happy spin on their history together are likely to be happy in the future

  • Gottman, John M. (1999) The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work. Three Rivers Press.

S-52: Mindfulness helps keep our autopilot mind in check

  • Niemiec, R. M. (2014). Mindfulness and character strengths: A practical guide to flourishing. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe.
  • Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.

S-53: Definition of mindfulness

  • Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice.
  • Niemiec, R. M. (2012). Mindful living: Character strengths interventions as pathways for the five mindfulness trainings. International Journal of Wellbeing.
  • Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full Catastrophe Living. New York, NY: Dell.
  • Salzberg, Sharon. (2011) Real Happiness: The Power of Meditation. Workman Publishing.

S-54: Mindfulness helps us see ourselves for who we really are

  • Carlson, E. N. (2013). Overcoming the barriers to self-knowledge: Mindfulness as a path to seeing yourself as you really are. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

S-55: Get feedback from others on character strengths to build up mindfulness of our own strengths

  • Niemiec, R. M. (2014). Mindfulness and character strengths: A practical guide to flourishing. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe.
  • Pronin, E. (2009). The introspection illusion. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 41 (pp. 1-67). Burlington, VT: Academic Press.
  • Research by the VIA Institute on Character.

S-56: Using mindfulness with your character strengths can help address various problems

  • Garland, E., Gaylord, & Park, J. (2009). The role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing.
  • Huta, V., & Hawley, L. (2010). Psychological strengths and cognitive vulnerabilities: Are they two ends of the same continuum or do they have independent relationships with well-being and ill-being? Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Niemiec, R. M. (2014). Mindfulness and character strengths: A practical guide to flourishing. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe.
  • Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009a). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character.

S-57: Importance of mindfulness in relation to our character strengths

  • Niemiec, R. M. (2012). Mindful living: Character strengths interventions as pathways for the five mindfulness trainings. International Journal of Wellbeing.
  • Niemiec, R. M., Rashid, T., & Spinella, M. (2012). Strong mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness and character strengths. Journal of Mental Health Counseling.

S-58: Benefits of mindful walking

  • Niemiec, R. M. (2012). Mindful living: Character strengths interventions as pathways for the five mindfulness trainings. International Journal of Wellbeing.
  • Niemiec, R. M. (2014). Mindfulness and character strengths: A practical guide to flourishing. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe.

S-59: Eating mindfully can help you maintain healthy body weight


S-60: Mindfulness and sexual dysfunction


S-61: Mindfulness can make us more compassionate and altruistic

  • Condon, P., Desbordes, G., Miller, W.B., & DeSteno, D. (2013). Meditation increases compassionate responses to suffering. Psychological Science.

S-62: Benefits of mindful parenting

  • Kabat-Zinn, M. & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1998) Everyday Blessings: The Inner Work of Mindful Parenting. New York: Hyperion.

S-63: Meditation can lead to better grades


S-64: Benefits of mindfulness in schools

  • Kuyken, W., Weare, K. et al. (2013) Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: non-randomised controlled feasibility study. British Journal of Psychiatry.

S-65: Starting a meditation practice


S-66: Mindfulness can help control binge eating and comfort eating

  • O'Reilly, G.A., Cook, L. et al. (2014) Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review. Obesity Review.

S-67: Benefits of mindfulness in the workplace

  • Aikens, K.A., Astin, J. et al. (2014) Mindfulness Goes to Work: Impact of an Online Workplace Intervention. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
  • Hulsheger, U.R., Alberts, H.J. et al. (2013) Benefits of mindfulness at work: the role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology.
  • Dane, E. & Brummel, B.J. (2013) Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations.

S-68: How to be mindful at work


S-69: Mindfulness helps us feel like we have more time

  • Kramer, R.S.S., Weger, U.W. & Sharma, D. (2013) The effect of mindfulness meditation on time perception. Consciousness and Cognition.

S-70: Inducing time scarcity enhances well-being

  • • Layous, K., Kurtz, J., Chacellor, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2015). Reframing the Ordinary: Imagining Time as Scarce Increases Well-Being. Manuscript submitted for publication.

S-71: People who share experiences with others rate them as more pleasant

  • Boothby, E.J., Clark, M.S. & Bargh, J.A. (2014) Shared experiences are amplified. Psychological Science.

S-72: Ways to savor


S-73: Mindfulness and self-acceptance

  • Carson, S.H. & Langer, E.J. (2006) Mindfulness and Self-Acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.

S-74: Experiencing adversity in the past linked with greater savoring in the present

  • Croft, A., Dunn, E.W. & Quoidbach, J. (2013) From Tribulations to Appreciation: Experiencing Adversity in the Past Predicts Greater Savoring in the Present. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

S-75: People who are good at savoring have less trouble balancing work and family life

  • Camgoz, S.M. (2014) The Role of Savoring in Work-Family Conflict. Social Behavior and Personality.

S-76: Meditation can offset age-related cognitive decline

  • Gard, T., Holzel, B.K. & Lazar, S.W. (2014) The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

S-77: 12.5 minutes a day of meditation for 8 weeks increased Marines' resistance to stress

  • Stanley, E.A., Schaldach, J.M., Kiyonaga, A. & Jha, A.P. (2011) Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training: A Case Study of a High-Stress Predeployment Military Cohort. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.

S-78: Washing the dishes mindfully reduces stress and boosts feelings of inspiration

  • Hanley, A.W., Warner, A.R. et al. (2014) Washing Dishes to Wash the Dishes: Brief Instruction in an Informal Mindfulness Practice. Mindfulness.

S-79: Being in nature reduces rumination

  • Bratman, G.N., Hamilton, J.P. et al. (2015) Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation. PNAS.

S-80: Telling others about our positive experiences can increase life satisfaction

  • Quoidbach, J. et al. (2010) Positive emotion regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and Individual Differences.

S-81: Flow is related to the process of creating meaning in our lives

  • Delle Fave, A. (2009) Optimal Experience and Meaning: Which Relationship? Psychological Topics.

S-82: Competing memories can push away positive memories if you don't focus on them from time to time

  • Wimber, M., Alink, A. et al. (2015) Retrieval induces adaptive forgetting of competing memories via cortical pattern suppression. Nature Neuroscience.

S-83: Looking at pictures of nature and green spaces may help us recover from stress

  • van den Berg, M.M.H.E., Maas, J. et al. (2016) Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

S-84: Feeling awe brings us into the present moment, enhances wellbeing, and decreases stress

  • Rudd, M. et al. (2012) Awe expands people's perception of time, alters decision making, and enhances well-being. Psychological Science.

S-85: Silence can help us develop new brain cells

  • Kirste, I. et al. (2015) Is silence golden? Effects of auditory stimuli and their absence on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Brain Structure and Function.

S-86: Don't try to suppress negative thoughts

  • Wegner, D.M., Schneider, D.J., Carter, S.R., & White, T.L. (1987). Paradoxical effects of thought suppression. Journal of personality and social psychology.

S-87: Mindfulness-based stress reduction can be an effective treatment for poor sleep, even for those with serious medical conditions

  • Gross, C.R., Kreitzer, M.J., et al. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction versus pharmacotherapy for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing.
  • Garland, S. N., Carlson, L. E., et al. (2014). Mindfulness-based stress reduction compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of insomnia comorbid with cancer: a randomized, partially blinded, noninferiority trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology.

S-88: Visualization and guided imagery may promote relaxation that reduces stress and anxiety


S-89: Mindfulness training effect on fibromyalgia patients

  • Grossman, P., Tiefenthaler-Gilmer, U., et al. (2007). Mindfulness training as an intervention for fibromyalgia: Evidence of postintervention and 3-year follow-up benefits in well-being. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.

S-90: Thinking of your thoughts as the link between incidents and reactions can help you take charge of them and change them

  • Edelman, S. (2006). Change Your Thinking With CBT. UK: Vermilion.

S-91: Why heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback works

  • Lehrer, P.M. & Gevirtz, R. (2014) Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work? Frontiers in Psychology.

S-92: Resonant breathing over time reduces stress, anxiety, depression; improves blood pressure regulation & pulmonary function

  • Prinsloo, G.E., Derman, W.E. et al. (2013) The Effect of a Single Session of Short Duration Biofeedback-Induced Deep Breathing on Measures of Heart Rate Variability During Laboratory-Induced Cognitive Stress: A Pilot Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.
  • Vaschillo, E.G., Shih, W.J. et al. (2003) Heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow. Psychosomatic Medicine.
  • Sutarto, A.p., Wahab, M.N. & Zin, N.M. (2012) Resonant breathing biofeedback training for stress reduction among manufacturing operators. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.

S-93: How we focus attention helps shape the mind

  • Siegel, Daniel J. Reflections on the Mindful Brain.

S-94: Mindful leadership training reduces our propensity to rush through activities without paying attention to them


S-95: What makes a mindful leader

  • Marturano, Janice. (2014) Finding the Space to Lead: A Practical Guide to Mindful Leadership. New York: Bloomsbury Press.

S-96: The mind needs time out from busy-mode in order to come up with creative solutions

  • Marturano, Janice. (2014) Finding the Space to Lead: A Practical Guide to Mindful Leadership. New York: Bloomsbury Press.

S-97: Mindfulness meditation promotes creative thinking

  • Colzato, L.S., Szapora, A. et al. (2014) Prior Meditation Practice Modulates Performance and Strategy Use in Convergent- and Divergent-Thinking Problems. Mindfulness.

S-98: RESET technique helps us cope with intrusive thoughts and lowers levels of anxiety, depression, stress

  • Shipherd, J.C. & Fordiani, J.M. (2015) The Application of Mindfulness in Coping With Intrusive Thoughts. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.

S-99: Mindful listening allows people to feel comfortable speaking the truth

  • Marturano, Janice. (2014) Finding the Space to Lead: A Practical Guide to Mindful Leadership. New York: Bloomsbury Press.

S-100: Long-term meditators have increased cortical thickness

  • Lazar, S.W., Kerr, C.E. et al. (2005) Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport.

S-101: Recollecting positive memories buffers acute stress responses

  • Speer, M.E. & Delgado, M.R. (2017) Reminiscing about positive memories buffers acute stress responses. Nature Human Behavior.

S-102: Savoring a past event can increase self-regulation

  • Speer, M.E., Bhanji, J.P. & Delgado, M.R. (2014) Savoring the past: positive memories evoke value representations in the striatum. Neuron.

S-103: Savoring can reduce our desire to want more money

  • Brown, K.W., Kasser, T. et al. (2009) When what one has is enough: Mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality.

S-104: We have to become aware of thinking behaviors before we can change them

  • Greenberger, D. & Padesky, C.A. (2015) Mind Over Mood, Second Edition: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think.
  • Burns, D.D. (2008) Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy. Harper.

S-105: Recurring thoughts and dreams after an experience can be helpful

  • Arnulf, I. et al. (2014) Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams? Consciousness and Cognition.

S-106: Mindfulness meditation a key factor for changing eating behaviors

  • Kristeller, J. et al. (2014) Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training (MB-EAT) for Binge Eating: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Mindfulness.

S-107: Paying mindful attention to body sensations can help stabilize body weight

  • Van De Veer, E. et al. (2015) Body and Mind: Mindfulness Helps Consumers to Compensate for Prior Food Intake by Enhancing the Responsiveness to Physiological Cues. Journal of Consumer Research.

S-108: Yoga can help improve disordered eating