Science of Happiness Research

Savor

S-1: Savoring strengthens parts of the brain connected with happiness

  • Kilpatrick, L.A., Suyenobu, B.Y., Smith, S.R. et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage.
  • Hölzel, B.K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M. et al. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research.

S-2: Health benefits of savoring

  • Weinstein, N. & Ryan, R. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for pro-social behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology.
  • Bryant, Fred and Veroff, Joseph. Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience. Psychology Press, 2007.
  • Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology.

S-3: Positive emotion regulation and well-being

  • Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E.W., Petrides, K.V., Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotion regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Journal of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences.

S-4: Mindfulness trains the brain for happiness

  • Davidson, R. J. & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience.
  • Epstein, Robert (2011). "Fight the Frazzled Mind", Scientific American Mind.
  • Epstein, Robert. (2010). "What Makes A Good Mind?" Scientific American Mind.

S-5: Benefits of meditation

  • Ditto, B., Eclache, M., & Goldman, N. (2006). Short term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan meditation. Annals of Behaviral Medicine.
  • Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta analysis. Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
  • Kilpatrick, L.A., Suyenobu, B.Y., Smith, S.R., et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage.
  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

S-6: Impact of mindfulness meditation on brain and immune function

  • Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J. et al. (2003). Alteration in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine.

S-7: Capitalizing on good news

  • Langston, C. A. (1994). Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Bryant, F.B. & Veroff, J. (2006). A four-factor model of perceived control: Avoiding, coping, obtaining, and savoring. Journal of Personality.

S-8: Benefits of capitalization

  • Gable, S.L., Reis, H.T., Impett, E.A. & Asher, E.R. (2004). What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me when things go right? Social support for positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Reis, H.T. & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of Personal Relationships: Theory, Research, and Interventions. John Wiley and Sons.

S-9: Benefits of laughing with spouse

  • Bazzini, D. G., Stack, E. P., Martinicin, P. D., & Davis, C. (2007). Remember when we...?”: The effects of reminiscing about laughter on relationship satisfaction. Motivation and Emotion.
  • Fraley, B., & Aron, A. (2004). The effect of shared humorous experience on closeness in initial encounters. Journal of Personal Relationships.

S-10: Savoring memories

  • Bryant, F. B., Smart, C. M., & King, S. P. (2005). Using the past to enhance the present: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence. Journal of Happiness Studies.

S-11: Flow and optimal experience

  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Csikszentmihalyi, Isabella Selega. Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Moneta, G.B., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). The effect of perceived challenges and skills on the quality of subjective experience. Journal of Personality.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.

S-12: Mindfulness-based stress reduction

  • Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research.
  • http://www.mbct.com/About_sub08.html

S-13: Effect of thought-stopping on mood

  • Teasdale, V. & Rezin, J.D. (1978). Effect of thought-stopping on thoughts, mood, and corrugator EMG in depressed patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy.

S-14: Benefits of distraction

  • Brockner, J. & Hulton, A.J.B. (1978). How to reverse the vicious cycle of low self-esteem: The importance of attentional focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Caldwell, N.D. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2008). The How of Happiness. Penguin Books.

S-15: Mind-wandering leads to less happiness

  • Killingsworth, M.A., & Gilbert, D.T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science.

S-16: Effects of meditation-training on the brain

  • Desbordes, G., Negi, L.T., Pace, T.W.W. et al. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

S-17: Benefits of loving-kindness meditation

  • Hutcherson, C.A., Seppälä, E.M., & Gross, J.J. (2008). Lovingkindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion.
  • Fredrickson, B.L., Cohn, M.A., Coffey, K.A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S.M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

S-18: Brain enters meditative state when you enter green spaces

  • Aspinall, P., Mavros, P., Coyne, R, & Roe, J. (2013). The urban brain: analysing outdoor physical activity with mobile EEG. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
  • http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/27/easing-brain-fatigue-with-a-walk-in-the-park/?_r=1

S-19: Savoring the future: Benefits of joyfully anticipating future events

  • Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2008). The How of Happiness. Penguin Books.
  • Dunn, Elizabeth & Norton, Michael. (2013). Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending. Simon & Schuster.
  • Schacter, D.L. (2012) Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory. American Psychologist.
  • Ostby, Y. et al (2012) Mental Time Travel and Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in the Developing Brain.

S-20: Reframing negative thoughts boosts resilience

  • Brinol, P. (2012). Treating thoughts as material objects can increase or decrease their impact on evaluation. Psychological Science.
  • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/two-takes-depression/201102/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
  • Seligman, M. E. (2002) Newsweek. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12360828

S-21: Looking at nature activates parts of brain linked to emotional stability and optimism; boosts creativity

  • Kim, G., Jeong, G., Kim, T. et al. (2010). Functional neuroanatomy associated with natural and urban scenic views in the human brain. 3.0T Functional MR Imaging. Korean Journal of Radiology.
  • Atchley RA, Strayer DL, Atchley P (2012) Creativity in the Wild: Improving Creative Reasoning through Immersion in Natural Settings. PLoS ONE

S-22: Spending on experiences, not material objects, leads to happiness in long run

  • Hill, G., Howell, R.T. (2009) The mediators of experiential purchases: Determining the impact of psychological needs satisfaction and social comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology.

S-23: Boost mood with a positive portfolio

  • Fredrickson, Barbara. (2009). Positivity.

S-24: Daydreaming boosts creativity

  • Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Mrazek, M.D., Kam, J.W.Y., Franklin, M.S., Schooler, J.W. (2012). Inspired by Distraction: Mind Wandering Facilitates Creative Incubation. Psychological Science.

S-25: Mindfulness enhances relationships

  • Barnes, S., Brown, K.W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W.K., Rogge, R.D., (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.

S-26: Mindfulness aids working memory and flexible thinking

  • Jha, A.P., Stanley, E.A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion.
  • Siegel, D.J. (2007) Reflections on The Mindful Brain: A Brief Overview Adapted from The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being.

S-27: Yoga boosts mood, reduces stress

  • Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Christian, L., Preston, H., et al. (2010). Stress, inflammation, and yoga practice. Psychosomatic Medicine.
  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The SuperStress Solution. New York: Random House.

S-28: Bliss is linked to longevity

  • Tonya L. Jacobs, Elissa S. Epel, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Owen M. Wolkowitz, David A. Bridwell, Anthony P. Zanesco, Stephen R. Aichele, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Katherine A. MacLean. Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2010

S-29: Importance of being present during our social interactions

  • Dutton, J.E. (2003). Fostering high-quality connections. Stanford Social Innovation Review.

S-30: Mindfulness meditation reduces anxiety

  • Zeidan, F., Martucci, K.T. et al. (2013). Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.

S-31: Yoga improves brain function

  • Gothe, N., Pontefex, M.B. et al. (2012). The acute effects of yoga on executive function. Journal of Physical Activity & Health.

S-32: Spacing out our indulgences allows us to enjoy them more

  • Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E. (Forthcoming) Give it up: A strategy for combatting hedonic adaptation. Social Psychological and Personality Science.
  • Nelson, L.D., Meyvis, T., Galak, J. (2009) Enhancing the television-viewing experience through commerical interruptions. Journal of Consumer Research.
  • Nelson, L.D., Meyvis, T. (2008) Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research.

S-33: People procrastinate enjoyable experiences

  • Shu, S., Gneezy, A. (2010) Procrastination of enjoyable experiences. Journal of Marketing Research.

S-34: Focusing on places we haven't visited ramps up thrill of traveling, even to nearby locations

  • Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E., Bustin, G, et al. (Forthcoming) The Price of Awesomeness: How a Wealth of Experiences Impoverishes Savoring.

S-35: Interacting with strangers or treating partners as strangers can boost joy in interactions

  • Dunn, E., Biesanz, J., Human, L., et al. (2007) Misunderstanding the affective consequences of everyday social interactions: the hidden benefits of putting one’s best face forward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

S-36: Benefits of relaxation for physical and emotional health

  • Broadbent, E. et al. (2012). A brief relaxation intervention reduces stress and improves surgical wound healing response: A randomized trial. Brian, Behavior, & Immunity.
  • Benson, Herbert. (2000). The Relaxation Response. New York: HarperTorch.
  • Hanson, Rick. (2013). Hardwiring Happiness. New York: Harmony Books.
  • Rees, B. (2011). Overview of outcome data of potential meditation training for soldier resilience. Military Medicine.
  • http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/relax-your-way-to-perfect-health-1763109.html

S-37: Interacting with nature results in a cognitive boost, reduces stress

  • Berman, M.G., Jonides, J. & Kaplan, S. (2008). The cognitive benefits of interacting with nature. Psychological Science.
  • http://dirt.asla.org/2011/09/08/research-shows-nature-helps-with-stress/

S-38: Looking at nature makes us feel more connected, caring, generous

  • Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A.K., & Ryan, R.M. et al. (2009). Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

S-39: Benefits of progressive muscle relaxation

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

S-40: Benefits of tai chi

  • Jin, P. (1992). Efficacy of tai chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research.

S-41: The benefits of looking at art

  • Jones, Daniel P. and Peart, Karen. (2009). "Class Helping Future Doctors Learn the Art of Observation," Yale News.

S-42: The benefits of reducing noise in our lives

  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

S-43: The joy we get from a happy experience grows over time; joy from material purchases fade over time

  • Carter, T., Gilovich, T. (2010)The relative relativity of material and experiential purchases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

S-44: Our experiences are constantly resculpting the brain

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-45: When good experiences become encoded in neural structure, negative moments are a less powerful influence on happiness

  • Fredrickson, B.L. et al (2003) What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crisis? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the U.S. on 9/11/01. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Fredrickson, B.L., Levenson, R. (1998) Positive Emotions Speed Recovery from the Cardiovascular Sequelae of Negative Emotions. Psychology Press.

S-46: Savoring good experiences rewires brains for more resilience, happiness, plus better health and relationships

  • Tugade, M.M., Fredrickson, B.L. (2007) Regulation of Positive Emotions: Emotion Regulation Strategies that Promote Resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-47: Recognizing stable good conditions can give us a sense of comfort, security and relief

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-48: Knowing that both pleasantness and unpleasantness are constantly changing can actually help us feel better when we’re in a negative place

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-49: To find what’s fresh in your commonplace positive experiences, you can look for unexpected rewards

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

S-50: Practicing mindfulness strengthens lateral networks of brain

  • Farb, N.A.S., Segal, Z.V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., & Anderson, A.K.(2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reflection. SCAN.

Thank

T-1: Impact of gratitude on mental health

  • Wood, A.M. et al (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review.
  • Emmons, R.A. & McCullough, M.E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Happiness Studies.

T-2: 3 good things intervention

  • Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist.

T-3: Benefits of gratitude journaling

  • Emmons, R.A. & McCullough, M.E. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Emmons, R.A. & McCullough, M.E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

T-4: Gratitude letter intervention

  • Seligman M.E.P., et al (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist.
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R. & Boehm, J.K. (2011). Becoming Happier Takes Both a Will and a Proper Way: An Experimental Longitudinal Intervention To Boost Well-Being. Emotion.

T-5: Gratitude can improve relationships

  • DeSteno, D., Bartlett, M.Y., Baumann, J., Williams, L.A. & Dickens, L. (2010). Gratitude as moral sentiment: Emotion-guided cooperation in economic exchange. Emotion.
  • Bartlett, M.Y. & DeSteno, D. (2006). Gratitude and prosocial behavior: Helping when it costs you. Psychological Science.
  • Algoe, S.B., Haidt, J., & Gable, S.L. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships in everyday life. Emotion.
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.) The Psychology of Gratitude. New York: Oxford University Press.

T-6: Gratitude in romance

  • Algoe, S. B., Gable, S. L. & Maisel, N. C. (2010). It's the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships. Journal of Personal Relationships.
  • Gable, S., & Algoe, S. B. Being there when things go right: Support processes for positive events. Support Processes in Intimate Relationships. Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Kubacka, K.E., Finkenauer, C., Rusbult, C.E., Keijsers, L. (2011). Maintaining close relationships: Gratitude as a motivator and a detector of maintenance behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • Algoe, S. B., Haidt, J., & Gable, S. L. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships in everyday life. Emotion.

T-7: Gratitude helps us sleep better

  • Wood, A.M., Joseph, S., Lloyd, J. & Atkins, S. (2009). Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions. Journal of Psychosomatic Research.

T-8: Delivering regular gratitude reports

  • Parks, A.C., Schueller, S. & Tasimi, A. (2013). Increasing happiness in the general population: Empirically supported self-help? S. David, I. Boniwell & A.C. Ayers (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Happiness. Oxford University Press.

T-9: Gratitude benefits teens

  • Bono, G. (2012). Searching for the Developmental Role of Gratitude: A 4-year Longitudinal Analysis. Presented at the American Psychological Association’s 120th Annual Convention.

T-10: Grateful people are healthier

  • Hill, P., Allemand, M., Roberts, B. (2012) Examining the pathways between gratitude and self-rated physical health across adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences.

T-11: Gratitude lifts mood, increases life satisfaction and builds resilience

  • Fagley, N. (2012) Appreciation Uniquely Predicts Life Satisfaction Above Demographics, the Big 5 Personality Factors, and Gratitude. Personality and Individual Differences.
  • Adler, M. G., N. Fagley (2005) Appreciation: Individual Differences in Finding Value and Meaning as a Unique Predictor of Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Personality.
  • Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. (2003) Counting Blessings Versus Burdens: An Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

T-12: Habituation can make us miss opportunities for good experiences

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

Aspire

A-1: Optimism promotes good heart health

  • Boehm, J.K. & Kubzansky, L.D. (2012). The heart’s content: The association between positive psychological well-being and cardiovascular health. Psychological Bulletin.

A-2: Benefits of optimism

  • Carver, S., Scheier, M.F., & Segerstrom, S.C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review.
  • Taylor, S.E., Kemny, M.E. et al (2000). Psychological resources, positive illusions, and health. American Psychologist.
  • Carver, S., Scheier, M.F., & Segerstrom, S.C. (1992). Psychological adjustment during a life transition. Cognitive Therapy Research.
  • Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Grant, A. M., & Berry, J. W. (2011). The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective-taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal.
  • Strong, G. & Aron, A. (2006). The effect of shared participation in novel and challenging activities on experienced relationship quality: Is it mediated by high positive affect? In K.D. Vohs & E.J. Finkel (Eds). Self and Relationships: Connecting Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Processes. Guilford Press.
  • Seligman, Martin E. (2006). Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life. Vintage.
  • Schulman, P. (1995) Explanatory Style and Achievement in School and Work. In Explanatory Style. Routledge.

A-3: Friends health benefits: reduce stress, boost optimism, leads to trying new things

  • Grant, A. M., & Berry, J. W. (2011). The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective-taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal.
  • Strong, G. & Aron, A. The effect of shared participation in novel and challenging activities on experienced relationship quality: Is it mediated by high positive affect? In K.D. Vohs & E.J. Finkel (Eds). Self and Relationships: Connecting Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Processes. Guilford Press, 2006.
  • J.H. Fowler & Christakis, N.A. (2008). The dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham heart study. British Medical Journal.
  • Demir, M. (2007). "Close friendships and happiness among young adults." Wayne State University. http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/dissertations/AAI3279736.
  • Rosengren, A., Orth-Gomer, K., Wedel, H., & Wilhelmsen, L. (1993). Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933. British Medical Journal.

A-4: Best possible self intervention

  • Peterson, Chris & Seligman, Martin. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook of Classification. Oxford University Press.
  • Sheldon, K.M. & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006) How to increase and sustain positive emotion: The effects of expressing gratitude and visualising best possible selves. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Peters, M.L., Flink, I.K., Boersma, K. & Linton, S.J. (2010). Manipulating optimism: Can imagining a best possible self be used to increase positive future expectancies? Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Layous, K., Nelson, S.K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). What is the optimal way to deliver a positive activity intervention? The case of writing about one's best possible selves. Journal of Happiness Studies.

A-5: Visualization intervention

  • Finke, Ronald A. (1990). Creative Imagery: Discoveries and Inventions in Visualization. Psychology Press.
  • Roeckelein, Jon. (2004). Imagery in Psychology: A Reference Guide. Praeger.
  • Fezler, William. (1989). Creative Imagery: How to Visualize in All Five Senses. Simon and Schuster.
  • Martin, K.A. & Hall, C.R. (1995). Using mental imagery to enhance intrinsic motivation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.

A-6: From mental power to muscle power

  • Ranganathan, V.K., Siemionow, V., Liu, J.Z., Sahgal, V., & Yue, G.H. (2004). From mental power to muscle power—gaining strength by using the mind. Neuropsychologia.

A-7: Goal-setting

  • Locke, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science.
  • Sheldon, K.M., Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: It's both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • Locke, E.A. (2002) Setting goals for life and happiness. In Snyder, C.R. & Lopez, S.J. (Eds.) Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

A-8: Happiness, goal-setting and meaning

  • Headey, B. (2007). Life goals matter to happiness: A revision of set point. Social Indicators Research.
  • Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd Ed.) Oxford University Press.
  • Cumming, J. & Hall, C. (2004). The relationship between goal orientation and self-efficacy for exercise. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,

A-9: Benefits of pursuing intrinsic goals

  • Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology.
  • Ryan, R. (2009). Self‐determination theory and wellbeing. WeD Research Review.

A-10: Meaning in life yields greater happiness

  • Rosso, B.D. & Dekas, K.H. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior.
  • Pennebaker, J.W. & Seagal, J.D. (1999). Forming a story: The health benefits of narrative. Journal of Clinical Psychology.
  • Grant, A. M., & Sonnentag, S. (2010). Doing good buffers against feeling bad: Prosocial impact compensates for negative task and self-evaluations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
  • Spence, G.B. & Grant, A.M. (2007). Professional and peer life coaching and the enhancement of goal striving and well-being: An exploratory study. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology.
  • Green, L. S., Oades, L. G., & Grant, A. M. (2006). Cognitive behavioural, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being and hope. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Baumeister, Roy F. (2005). The Cultural Animal: Human Nature, Meaning, and Social Life. Oxford University Press.
  • Folkman, S. (1997). Using bereavement narratives to predict well-being in gay men whose partners died of AIDS: Four theoretical perspectives, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Edmans, A. (2012). The Link Between Job Satisfaction and Firm Value, with Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility. Academy of Management Perspectives.

A-11: Avatars inrtervention

  • Blascovich, Jim and Bailenson, Jeremy. (2011). Infinite Reality—Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds, and the Dawn of the Virtual Revolution. William Morrow.
  • Ahn, S. J., Fox, J., & Bailenson, J. N. (2012). Avatars. In Bainbridge, W. S. (Ed.), Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Publications.

A-12: Reflecting on negative experiences with expressive writing

  • Pennebaker, J.W. & Chung, C.K. Expressive writing and its links to mental and physical health. In H.S. Friedman (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Health Psychology. Oxford University Press.
  • Smyth, J.M. (1998). Written emotional expression: Effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
  • McGuire, K.M.B., Greenberg, M.A., & Gevirtz, R. (2005). Autonomic effects of expressive writing in individuals with elevated blood pressure. Journal of Health Psychology.
  • Klein, K. & Boals, A. (2001). Expressive writing can increase working memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology.

A-13: Writing about life goals

  • King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • http://www.dominican.edu/dominicannews/study-backs-up-strategies-for-achieving-goals

A-14: Explanatory style in prevention of depression

  • Seligman, M.E., Schulman, P. & Tryon, A.M. (2007). Group prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms. Behavior Research and Therapy.

A-15: Asking others to provide peak episodes

  • "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall...Reflecting on Extraordinary Potential" by Nancy Davis, University of Michigan Ross School of Business, 2005 http://www.bus.umich.edu/NewsRoom/ArticleDisplay.asp?news_id=4746

A-16: People connected to "future selves" more likely to save money

  • Joshi, P. & Fast, N. (2013). Power and reduced temporal discounting. Psychological Science.

A-17: Well-being and identification of signature strengths

  • Mitchell, J., Stanimirovic, R., Klein, B., & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2009). A randomised controlled trial of a self-guided internet intervention promoting well-being. Computers in Human Behavior
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist.
  • Madden, W., Green, S., & Grant, A. M. (2011). A pilot study evaluating strengths-based coaching for primary school students: Enhancing engagement and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review.
  • Linley, P. A., Nielsen, K. M., Gillett, R., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Using signature strengths in pursuit of goals: Effects on goal progress, need satisfaction, and well-being, and implications for coaching psychologists. International Coaching Psychology Review.
  • Gander, F., Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Wyss, T. (2012). Strength-based positive interventions: Further evidence for their potential in enhancing well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies.

A-18: Having greater purpose may prevent Alzheimer's

  • Boyle, P.A., Buchman, A.S., Barnes, L.L., & Bennett, D.A. (2012). Effect of a purpose in life on risk of incident alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older persons. JAMA Psychiatry.

A-19: Purpose and longevity

  • Buettner, Dan. (2012). The Blue Zones: 9 Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest. National Geographic.

A-20: Benefits of setting short-term goals

  • Ryff, C.D. & Singer, B. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry.

A-21: Having same goals increases pain threshold

  • Cohen, E.E.A., Ejsmond-Frey, R., Knight, N. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2009). Rowers' high: behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds. Biology Letters.

A-22: Social support increases goal success

  • Green, B.B. et al. (2002). Effectiveness of telephone support in increasing physical activity levels in primary care patients. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
  • Israel, B.A. & Antonucci, T.C. (1987). Social network characteristics and psychological well-being: A replication and extension. Health Education Quarterly.
  • Raglin, J. (2001). Factors in exercise adherence: Influences of spouse participation. In W. P. Morgan & R. K. Dishman (Eds.) The Academy Papers: Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity.
  • Leahey, T.M., Kumar, R., et al. (2012). Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition. Obesity.

A-23: Implementation intentions

  • Gollwitzer, P.M. (1999). Implementation Intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist.
  • Parks-Stamm, E. J., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Goal implementation: The benefits and costs of if-then planning. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The Psychology of Goals. New York: Guilford.

A-24: Best time of day to pursue goals, make decisions

  • Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N. et. al. (2007). Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Danziger, S., Levav, J. & Avnaim-Pesso, L. (2011). Extraneous factors in judicial decisions. PNAS.
  • Doherty, C.J.& Kay, S.A. (2012). Circadian Surprise: It’s not all about transcription. Science.
  • Wieth, M.B. & Zacks, R.T. (2011). Time of day effects on problem solving: When the non-optimal is optimal. Thinking & Reasoning.

A-25: Trauma, resilience, and finding meaning

  • Seery, M.D., Holman, E.A., Silver, R.C. (2010). Whatever does not kill us: Cumulative lifetime adversity, vulnerability, and resilience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Affleck, G., & Tennen, H. (1996). Construing benefits from adversity: Adaptational significance and dispositional underpinnings. Journal of Personality.

A-26: Shedding our "lost possible selves"

  • King, L. (2008). Interventions for enhancing subjective well-being. The Science of Subjective Well-Being, ed. Eid & Larsen.

A-27: Forming new habits and behaviors

  • Prochaska, J., Norcross, J. & DiClemente, C. Changing for Good. (1995). A Revolutionary Six-Stage Program for Overcoming Bad Habits and Moving Your Life Positively Forward.
  • Duhigg, Charles. (2012). The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. Random House.

A-28: Having goals builds resiliency

  • Gordon-Rouse, K.A. (2001). Resilient students’ goals and motivation. Journal of Adolescence.

A-29: Telling our goals to others

  • Locke, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist.
  • http://www.dominican.edu/dominicannews/study-backs-up-strategies-for-achieving-goals

A-30: Goal-setting at work

  • Ordonez, L.D., Schweitzer, M.E., Galinsky, A.D. & Bazerman, M.H. (2009). Goals gone wild: The systematic side effects of over-prescribing goal-setting. Harvard Business School.

A-31: Anticipating future events

  • Hubert, W., Moller, M. & de Jong-Meyer, R. (1993). Film-induced amusement changes in saliva cortisol levels. Psychoneuroendrocrinology.
  • Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2004). How to become a persevering exerciser? Providing a clear, future intrinsic goal in an autonomy-supportive way. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.
  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

A-32: Health benefits of finding meaning in tasks

  • Crum, A. J. & Langer, E. J. (2007). Mind-set matters: Exercise and the placebo effect. Psychological Science.

A-33: Effectiveness of process focus in goal achievement

  • Pham, L., & Taylor, S. (1999). From thought to action: Effects of process- versus outcome-based mental simulations on performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

A-34: Self-efficacy theory

  • Locke, E.A., Motowidlo, S.J. & Bobko, P. (1986). Using self-efficacy theory to resolve the conflict between goal-setting theory and expectancy theory in organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 4, Special Issue: Self-Efficacy Theory in Contemporary Psychology.
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review.
  • Maddux, J. (2000) Self-Efficacy: The Power of Believing You Can. In Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press.

A-35: Expectancy theory

  • Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E. (1968). Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
  • Vroom, V. H. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York: McGraw Hill.

A-36: Making progress on goals leads to higher motivation and happiness at work

  • Amabile, Teresa M. & Kramer, Steven J. "The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2010." (2010). Harvard Business Review.

A-37: Kids with knowledge of family history and narrative have higher well-being, self-esteem, resilience

  • Fivush, R., Bohanek, J.G., & Duke, M. The intergenerational self: Subjective perspective and family history. In F. Sani (Ed.), Individual and Collective Self-Continuity. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/17/fashion/the-family-stories-that-bind-us-this-life.html

A-38: Pessimistic outlooks and depressive attributional style

  • Seligman, M. E. P., Abramson, L. Y, Semmel, A., et al. (1979). Depressive attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

A-39: Optimists live longer than pessimists

  • Maruta, T., Colligan, R., Malinchoc, M., et al. (2000) Optimists vs Pessimists: Survival Rate Among Medical Patients Over a 30-Year Period. Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

A-40: Rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation

  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). When rewards compete with nature: The undermining of intrinsic motivation and self-regulation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance. New York: Academic Press.

A-41: Reduce the barriers for performing a target behavior to make it more likely to happen

  • Fogg, B.J. (2009). A behavioral model for persuasive design. Persuasive 2009: The 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology.
  • Meyers, A.W., Stunkard, A.J. & Coll, M. (1980). Food accessibility and food choice. Archives of General Psychiatry.
  • Meiselman, H.L., Hedderley, D. et al. (1994). Effect of effort on meal selection and meal acceptability in a student cafeteria. Appetite.

A-42: Make a change in your environment to enable your goals

  • Baumeister, R.F., & Tierney, J. (2011). Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength. New York: Penguin Press.
  • Snyder, C.R. & Lopez, S.J. (2002) Setting goals for life and happiness. Handbook of Positive Psychology.
  • Coyle, D. (2009). The Talent Code.

A-43: Building optimism during performance increases our ability to perform

  • Seligman, M. E. P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N. & Thornton, K. M. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychological Science.

A-44: Optimists' brains reject negative thoughts

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-15214080
  • Sharot, T., Korn, C.W., & Dolan, R.J. (2011) How Unrealistic Optimism Is Maintained in the Face of Reality. Nature Neuroscience.

A-45: The importance of taking risks

  • Lefkowitz, F. (2008). The Importance of Taking Risks. http://www.wholeliving.com/134159/importance-taking-risks

A-46: Positive emotions expand vision

  • Schmitz, T.W, De Rosa, E., & Anderson, A.K. (2009). Opposing influences of affective state valence on visual cortical encoding. Journal of Neuroscience.
  • Wiseman, R. (2003). The luck factor. The Skeptical Inquirer.

A-47: Positive growth can stem from adversity

  • Linley, P.A. & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress.
  • Tedeschi, R.D., Calhoun, L.G., & Cann, A. (2007). Evaluating resource gain: Understanding and misunderstanding posttraumatic growth. Applied Psychology: An International Review.
  • Val, E.B. & Linley, P.A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth, positive changes, and negative changes in Madrid residents following the March 11, 2004, Madrid train bombings. Journal of Loss and Trauma.
  • Weiss, T. (2002). Posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer and their husbands: An intersubjective validation study. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology.

A-48: Positive emotions help relieve anxiety and physical stress

  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist.

A-49: Happiness leads to success at work

  • Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin.
  • Estrada, C.A., Isen, A.M., & Young, M.J. (1997). Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
  • Grant, A. (2013) Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Success. Viking Adult.

A-50: Thinking about the positive impact of your job improves performance

  • Bellé, N. (2012) Experimental Evidence on the Relationship between Public Service Motivation and Job Performance. Public Administration Review.
  • Grant, A.M. & Hoffmann, D.A. (2007). Doing good, doing harm, being well and burning out: The interactions of perceived prosocial and antisocial impact in service work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
  • Grant, A.M. & Sonnentag, S. (2010). Doing good buffers against feeling bad: Prosocial impact compensates for negative task and self-evaluations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

A-51: How successful people cope with work stress

  • Taylor, S.E. (2006). Tend and Befriend: Biobehavioral Bases of Affiliation Under Stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science.
  • Nadler, A., Ellis, S., Bar, I. (2003) To Seek or Not to Seek: The Relationship Between Help Seeking and Job Performance Evaluations as Moderated by Task-Relevant Expertise. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.
  • Rothbard, N.P., Wilk, S.L. (2011) Waking Up on the Right or Wrong Side of the Bed: Start-of-Workday Mood, Work Events, Employee Affect, and Performance. Academy of Management.

A-52: Work satisfaction

  • http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/163007/state-american-workplace.aspx

A-53: Teams with encouraging managers perform better

  • Greenberg, M.H. & Arakawa, D. (2006). Optimistic managers and their influence on productivity and employee engagement in a technology organization. As cited in: Robison, J. (2007). The business benefits of positive leadership. Gallup Management Journal.
  • Barsade, S.G. (2002). The ripple effect: Emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly.

A-54: Being primed for happiness before a task increases our performance

  • Bryan, T. & Bryan, J. (1991). Positive mood and math performance. Journal of Learning Disabilities.

A-55: People who express more positive emotions in business deals more successful

  • Kopelman, S., Rosette, A.S. & Thompson, L. (2006). The three faces of Eve: Strategic displays of positive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

A-56: Recognition can be more motivating than money

  • Deci, E.L. (1996). Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation. Penguin Books.

A-57: Your beliefs can change the concrete results of your efforts

  • Saks, A.M. (1995). Longitudinal field investigation of the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and newcomer adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology.

A-58: People with a growth mindset keep improving their abilities

  • Dweck, C.S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Ballantine.

A-59: Human brain is more responsive to pleasant words than negative words

  • Schacht, A., Sommer, W. (2009). Emotions in word and face processing: early and late cortical responses. Brain Cognition.
  • Yang, J., et al. (2013). Positive words or negative words: Whose valence strength are we more sensitive to? Brain Research.

A-60: Writing about positive experiences has long-term effects on mood

  • Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality.

A-61: Our experiences reflect who we are more than our “stuff” does

  • Carter, T., Gilovich, T. (2012) I am what I do, not what I have: The differential centrality of experiential and material purchases to the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

A-62: Thinking of upcoming positive events increases our happiness

  • Quoidbach, J., Wood, A., Hansenne, M. (2009) Back to the future: The effect of daily practice of mental time travel into the future on happiness and anxiety. Journal of Positive Psychology.

A-63: Suicidal individuals tend to have fewer positive thoughts than others

  • MacLeod, A., Pankhania, B., Lee, M., et al. (1997) Parasuicide, depression and the anticipation of positive and negative future experiences. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences.

A-64: Anticipating good things activates brain regions linked with our experiences of pleasure and reward

  • Knutson, B., Peterson, R. (2005) Neurally reconstructing expected utility. Games and Economic Behavior.

A-65: We're motivated to keep some unpleasant thoughts out of our consciousness

  • Wilson, T., Dunn, E. (2004) Self-Knowledge: Its limits, value, and potential for improvement. Annual Review of Psychology.

A-66: Blind spots in our understandings of ourselves

  • Carlson, E. (2013) Overcoming the barriers to self-knowledge: mindfulness as a path to seeing yourself as you really are. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

A-67: People who have more insight into themselves are happier and more satisfied with life

  • Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. (2011). Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being. The Journal of Psychology.

A-68: Thinking realistically about obstacles can help you achieve goals

  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P.M. (2010). Strategies of setting and implementing goals. In J.E. Maddux & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundation of clinical psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.

A-69: Goal attainment: Our perception of reality can help speed us up

  • Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., Zheng, Y. (2006). The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention. Journal of Marketing Research.
  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

A-70: Reminders of your real successes can boost motivation

  • Koo, M., Fishbach, A. (2008) Dynamics of Self-Regulation: How (Un)accomplished Goal Actions Affect Motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

A-71: The fewer the people we think we’re competing against, the better we do

  • Garcia, S., Tor, A. (2009) The N Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition. Psychological Science.

A-72: Importance of meaning at work

  • Edmans, A. (2012) The Link Between Job Satisfaction and Firm Value, With Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility. Academy of Management Perspectives.
  • Innstrand, S.T., Langballe, E.M., Falkum, E. (2012) A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Work Engagement and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. Stress and Heath: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress.

A-73: Writing about positive feelings decreases levels of worry and pessimism, boosts memory and critical skills

  • Ramirez, G., Beilock, S.L. (2011) Writing about Testing Worries Boosts Exam Performance in the Classroom. Science.

A-74: Introducing a culture of happiness at work

  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

A-75: Shared narratives of triumphs can bond groups of coworkers, families, friends

  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

A-76: Learning something new contributes to happiness

  • Silva, P., Kashdan, T. (2009) Interesting Things and Curious People: Exploration and Engagement as Transient States and Enduring Strengths. Social and Personality Psychology Compass.

A-77: Curious people are happier, healthier, smarter, have better relationships

  • Silva, P., Kashdan, T. (2009) Interesting Things and Curious People: Exploration and Engagement as Transient States and Enduring Strengths. Social and Personality Psychology Compass.
  • Kashdan, T., Sherman, R., Yarbro, J., et al. (2012) How Are Curious People Viewed and How Do They Behave in Social Situations? From the Perspectives of Self, Friends, Parents, and Unacquainted Observers. Journal of Personality.

A-78: Heroism: How women and men behave in risky settings

  • Becker, S., Eagly, A. (2004) The Heroism of Women and Men. American Psychologist.

A-79: The nature of courage

  • Biswas-Diener, R. (2012) The Courage Quotient: How Science Can Make You Braver. Jossey-Bass.

A-80: Finding positive meaning in ordinary events is a good way to create a positive experience

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

A-81: Even terrible events have some opportunities in them for a positive experience

  • Folkman, S., Moskowitz, J. (2000) Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist.

A-82: Staying focused on the pleasant aspects and imagining rewards can link the wanting and the rewards associated with our goals, helping us achieve them

  • Schacter, D.L. (2012) Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory. American Psychologist.
  • Wimmer, G.E., Shohamy, D. (2012) Preference by Association: How Memory Mechanisms in the Hippocampus Bias Decisions. Science.

A-83: Using signature strengths at work linked to happiness and job satisfaction

  • Littman-Ovadia, H., & Steger, M. (2010). Character strengths and well-being among volunteers and employees: Toward an integrative model. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2012). When the job is a calling: The role of applying one's signature strengths at work. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2012b). The application of signature character strengths and positive experiences at work. Journal of Happiness Studies.

A-84: Students benefit from strengths-based school interventions

  • Gillham, J., Abenavoli, R., Brunwasser, S., Linkins, M., Reivich, K., & Seligman, M. (2013). Resilience education. In S. David, I. Boniwell, and A. Conley Ayers’ (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of happiness (609-630). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: Positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education.
  • Madden, W., Green, S., & Grant, A. M. (2011). A pilot study evaluating strengths-based coaching for primary school students: Enhancing engagement and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review.

A-85: Certain character strengths predict academic achievement

  • Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009a). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character.

A-86: Strength "workouts" boost students' life satisfaction

  • Proctor, C., Tsukayama, E., Wood, A., M., Maltby, J., Fox Eades, J., & Linley, P. A. (2011). Strengths gym: The impact of a character strengths-based intervention on the life satisfaction and well-being of adolescents. Journal of Positive Psychology.

A-87: Using strengths helps with success in school

  • Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. J., & Welsh, D. P. (2009). Investigation of character strengths in relation to the academic success of college students. Individual Differences Research.

A-88: Curiosity linked to happiness, meaning, and life satisfaction

  • Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beerman, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Buschor, C., Proyer, R. T., & Ruch, W. (2013). Self- and peer-rated character strengths: How do they relate to satisfaction with life and orientations to happiness? Journal of Positive Psychology.

A-89: Curious kids more optimistic and confident

  • Hunter, J. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2003). The positive psychology of interested adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.

A-90: Perseverance linked to doing well in school

  • Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009a). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character.
  • Peterson, C., & Park, N. (2009). Classifying and measuring strengths of character. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology, 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

A-91: Hope is linked to life satisfaction

  • Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Buschor, C. (2012). Testing strengths-based interventions: A preliminary study on the effectiveness of a program targeting curiosity, gratitude, hope, humor, and zest for enhancing life satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Proyer, R. T., Gander, F., Wyss, T., & Ruch, W. (2011). The relation of character strengths to past, present, and future life satisfaction among German-speaking women. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being.
  • Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009b). Strengths of character in schools. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.),Handbook of positive psychology in schools. New York: Routledge.

A-92: Hope linked to more meaning and engagement

  • Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beerman, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology.

A-93: In young adults, hope is a strength linked to happiness

  • Shimai, S., Otake, K., Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Convergence of character strengths in American and Japanese young adults. Journal of Happiness Studies.

A-94: Zest is a character strength directly related to well-being

  • Buschor, C., Proyer, R. T., & Ruch, W. (2013). Self- and peer-rated character strengths: How do they relate to satisfaction with life and orientations to happiness? Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009b). Strengths of character in schools. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 65-76). New York: Routledge.

A-95: Using signature strengths even one day improves a person's mood the next

  • Lavy, S., Littman-Ovadia, H., & Bareli, Y. (in press). Strengths deployment as a mood-repair mechanism: Evidence from a diary study with a relationship exercise group. Journal of Positive Psychology.

A-97: Using any strength in a new way is linked to greater happiness

  • Gander, F., Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Wyss, T. (2012). Strength-based positive interventions: Further evidence for their potential in enhancing well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist.

Give

G-1: Benefits of kindness

  • Poulin, M.J., Brown, S.L., Smith, D.M. & Dillard, A.J. (2013). Giving to others and the association between stress and mortality. American Journal of Public Health.
  • Piliavin, J. A. (2003). Doing well by doing good: Benefits for the benefactor. In Keyes, C.L.M. and Haidt, J. (eds.), Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the Life Well-Lived. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
  • Midlarsky, E. (1991). Helping as coping. In M. C. Clark (Ed.), Prosocial Behavior: Review of Personality and Social Psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2008). The How of Happiness. Penguin Books.

G-2: Acts of kindness boost happiness and are contagious

  • Lyubomirsky, S., Tkach, C., & Sheldon, K. M. (2005). Pursuing sustained happiness through random acts of kindness and counting one’s blessings: Tests of two 6-week interventions. University of California, Riverside.
  • Buchanan, K.E. & Bardi, A. (2009). Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction. Journal of Social Psychology.
  • Otake, K., Shimai, S., Tanaka-Matsumi, J. et al (2006). Happy people become happier through kindness: A counting kindnesses intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies.

G-3: Benefits of spending money on novel experiences

  • Dunn, E.W., Gilbert, D.T. & Wilson, T.D. (2011). If money doesn't make you happy, then you probably aren't spending it right. Journal of Consumer Psychology.

G-4: Spending money on others promotes happiness

  • Aknin, L., Norton, M.I., & Dunn, E.W. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science.
  • Argyle, Michael. (1999). The Psychology of Happiness (2nd edition). Taylor and Francis Ltd.
  • Aron, A., Norman, C.C., McKenna, C & Heyman, R.E. (2000). Couples' shared participation in novel and arousing activities and experienced relationship quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Aron, A., Norman, C.C., Aron, E.N. & Lewandowski, G. (2002). Shared participation in self-expanding activities: Positive effects on experienced marital quality. In P. Noller & J Feeney (Eds.), Understanding Marriage: Developments in the Study of Couple Interaction. Cambridge University Press.
  • Aknin, L., Norton, M.I., & Dunn, E.W. (2009). From wealth to well-being? Money matters, but less than people think. Journal of Positive Psychology.
  • Dunn E.W., Aknin, L.B., & Norton, M.I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science.
  • Anik, L., Aknin, L., Norton, M.I. & Dunn, E.W. (2009). Feeling good about giving: The benefits (and costs) of self-interested charitable behavior. In D. M. Oppenheimer & C. Y. Olivola (Eds.), Experimental Approaches to the Study of Charitable Giving. Psychology Press.
  • Aknin, L.B., Dunn, E.W. & Norton, M.I. (2012). Happiness runs in a circular motion: Evidence for a positive feedback loop between prosocial spending and happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies.

G-5: Donating promotes happiness

  • Harbaugh, W.T. et al (2007). Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations. Science.

G-6: Foregiveness in marriage

  • Kachadourian, L.K., & Fincham, F. (2005). Attitudinal ambivalence, rumination, and forgiveness of partner transgressions in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • Fincham, F.D., & Bradbury, T.N. (1987). The assessment of marital quality: A reevaluation. Journal of Marriage and the Family.
  • Bradbury, T.N., & Fincham, F.D. (1987). Assessing the effects of behavioral marital therapy: Assumptions and measurement strategies. Journal of Marriage and the Family.
  • Fincham, F.D., & Bradbury, T.N. (1987). The impact of attributions in marriage: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family.
  • Fincham, F.D., & Bradbury, T.N. (1987). Cognitive processes and conflict in close relationships: An attribution-efficacy model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

G-7: Effect of support or negativity in couples' relationships on happiness

  • Bradbury, T.N., & Fincham, F.D. (1987). Affect and cognition in close relationships: Towards an integrative model. Cognition and Emotion.
  • Bradbury, T.N., & Fincham, F.D. (1987). Assessment of affect in marriage. In K.D. O'Leary (Ed.) Assessment of Marital Discord: An Integration for Research and Clinical Practice. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Bradbury, T.N., & Fincham, F.D. (1987). Assessing the effects of behavioral marital therapy: Assumptions and measurement strategies. Clinical Psychology Review.
  • Ackerman, Diane. (2012). The brain on love. New York Times. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/24/the-brain-on-love/

G-8: The important of "together time" for parents

  • Bianchi, S.M. (2011). Family change and time allocation in American families. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

G-9: The gift of time

  • Peterson, Chris (2006). A Primer in Positive Pyschology. Oxford University Press.
  • Mogilner, C., Chance, Z., Norton, M.I. (2012) Giving time gives you time. Psychological Science.

G-10: Happy people volunteer

  • Thoits, P.A. and Hewitt, L.N. (2001). Volunteer work and well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior.

G-11: Helping others is good for your health

  • Poulin, M.J., Brown, S.L., Smith, D.M. & Dillard, A.J. (2013). Giving to others and the association between stress and mortality. American Journal of Public Health.

G-12: Forgiveness and well-being

  • McCullough, M.E., Root, L.M., Tabak, B.A., & Witvliet, C. (2009). Forgiveness. In S.J. Lopez & C.R. Snyder (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press.
  • Brown, R.P. (2003). Measuring individual differences in the tendency to forgive. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • Thompson, L.Y., Snyder, C.R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S.T., Rasmussen, H.N. & Billings, L.S. et al (2005). Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of Personality.
  • Bono, G., McCullough, M.E. & Root, L.M. (2006). Forgiveness and well-being.
  • Luskin, Fred. (2003). Forgive for Good. HarperOne.

G-13: How forgiveness benefits physical health

  • Lawler, K.A., Younger, J.W., Piferi, R.L., Billington, E., Jobe, R., Edmondson, K. et al (2003). A change of heart: Cardiovascular correlates of forgiveness in response to interpersonal conflict. Journal of Behavioral Medicine.
  • Kendler, K.S., Liu, X., Gardner, C.O., McCullough, M.E., Larson, D.B. & Prescott, C.A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry.

G-14: Giving activates reward centers of the brain

  • Moll, J., Krueger, F., Zahn, R., et al. (2006). Human fronto-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation. PNAS.
  • Moll, J. et al (2006) Human Fronto-Mesolimbic Networks Guide Decisions About Charitable Donations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

G-15: How to facilitate forgiveness

  • McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., & Cohen, A. D. (2006). Writing about the benefits of an interpersonal transgression facilitates forgiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

G-16: Variety in acts of kindness

  • Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K.M. & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology.

G-17: Gift of flowers promotes happiness

  • Haviland-Jones, J., Rosario, H.H., Wilson, P. & McGuire, T.R. (2005). An environmental approach to positive emotion: Flowers. Evolutionary Psychology.

G-18: Importance of forgiveness in social groups

  • McCullough, Michael E. (2008). Beyond Revenge: The Evolution of the Forgiveness Instinct. Jossey-Bass.

G-19: Charitable behavior around the world

  • https://www.cafonline.org/PDF/WorldGivingIndex2012WEB.pdf

G-20: Contemplating altruism leads to immunity boost

  • McClelland, D. & Kirchnit, C. (1988). The effect of motivational arousal through films on salivary immunoglobulin A. Psychology and Health.

G-21: Benefits of seeing others benefit from our acts

  • Luks, Allan and Payne, Peggy. (2001). The Healing Power of Doing Good. iUniverse.

G-22: Longer-term volunteering leads to more socioemotional benefits

  • Tang, F., Choi, E. & Morrow-Howell, N. (2010). Organizational support and volunteering benefits for older adults. The Gerontologist.

G-23: Health benefits of volunteering

  • Corporation for National and Community Service, Office of Research and Policy Development. The Health Benefits of Volunteering: A Review of Recent Research, Washington, DC.
  • http://www.nationalservice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/07_0506_hbr_brief.pdf

G-24: Generosity promotes deeper connection and trust

  • Willer, R., Feinberg, F., Simpson, B. & Flynn, F.J. Is generosity sincere or strategic? Altruism versus status-seeking in prosocial behavior.

G-25: Modeling altruism to children

  • Yarrow, M.R., Scott, P.M. & Waxler, C.Z. (1973). Learning corcern for others. Developmental Psychology.

G-26: Benefits of kind acts in kids

  • Layous, K. Nelson, S.K., Oberle, E. Schonert-Reichl, K.A. & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012) Kindness counts: Prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being. PLos ONE.

G-27: Give kids praise for effort, not intelligence

  • Mueller, C.A., Dweck, C.S. (1998) Praise for Intelligence Can Undermine Children’s Motivation and Performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (in press). Parent praise to 1-3 year-olds predicts children’s motivational frameworks 5 years later. Child Development.
  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development.
  • Heyman, G. D., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Children’s thinking about traits: Implications for judgments of the self and others. Child Development.

G-28: Self-expansion theory and close relationships

  • Aron, A., Lewandowski, G.W. et al. (2013). The self-expansion model of motivation and cognition in close relationships.

G-29: Importance of family activities, shared rituals, and time with extended family

  • Compan, E., Moreno, J. et al. (2001). Doing things together: adolescent health and family rituals. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

G-30: Parents can help children internalize moral behaviors through modeling

  • Hoffman, M.L. (1975) Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology.

G-31: Benefits of healthy relationships

  • Ackerman, Diane. (2012). The brain on love. New York Times. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/24/the-brain-on-love/

G-32: Benefits of giving compliments to others

  • Matheson, C. (2009) The Art of the Compliment. Skyhorse Publishing.
  • Knapp, M. L., Hopper, R., & Bell, R. A. (1984). Compliments: A descriptive taxonomy. Journal of Communication.
  • Siy, J. O., & Cheryan, S. (2013). When compliments fail to flatter: American individualism and responses to positive stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

G-33: People who recently donated to charity are more satisfied with lives

  • Aknin, L.B. et al (forthcoming) Prosocial spending and well-being: Cross-cultural evidence for a psychological universal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

G-34: Giving to others makes young children happy

  • Aknin, L.B., Hamlin, K.J., Dunn, E.W. (2012) Giving leads to happiness in young children. Plos ONE.

G-35: Couples who engage in novel experiences together feel more satisfied

  • Aron, A., Norman, C., Aron, E., et al (2000) Couples’ shared participation in novel and arousing activities and experienced relationship quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Dunn, Elizabeth & Norton, Michael. (2013). Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending. Simon & Schuster.

G-36: Benefits of giving to others and accompanying them as they use the gift

  • Aknin, L.B, Dunn, E.W., Sandstrom, M., et al. (2012) Turning good deeds into good feelings: The value of the ‘social’ in prosocial spending. Unpublished data, University of British Columbia.

G-37: We have fewer regrets about purchases that we view as experiences rather than material goods

  • Rosenzweig, E., Gilovich, T. (2012) Buyer’s remorse or missed opportunity? Differential regrets for material and experiential purchases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

G-38: Helping people is more rewarding when we don’t feel like we’re obligated

  • Weinstein, N., Ryan, R.M. (2010) When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

G-39: Giving money away makes us feel wealthier

  • Chance, Z., Norton, M.I. I give, therefore I have: Giving and subjective wealth. Working paper, Yale University.

Empathize

E-1: Benefits of self affirmations

  • Steele, C.M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology.
  • Crocker, J., Yu, N., & Mischkowski, D. (2008). Self-affirmation and the role of positive other-directed feelings. Psychological Science.
  • Williams, G.C., Niemiec, C.P. (2012). Positive affect and self-affirmation are beneficial, but do they facilitate maintenance of health-behavior change? Archives of Internal Medicine.
  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

E-2: Psychological and health benefits of self-compassion

  • Neff, K. D. (2012). The science of self-compassion. In C. Germer & R. Siegel (Eds.), Compassion and Wisdom in Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Yarnell, L.M. & Neff, K.D. (2012). Self-compassion, interpersonal conflict resolutions, and well-being. Self and Identity.
  • Neff, K.D., & Beretvas, S.N. (2012). The role of self-compassion in romantic relationships. Self and Identity.
  • Neff, K. D., Pommier, E. (2012). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity. DOI:10.1080/15298868.2011.649546.
  • Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity.
  • Neff, K.D. (2011) Self-compassion, self-esteem, and well-being. Social and Personality Psychology Compass.
  • Fain, Jean. (2010). The Self-Compassion Diet. Sounds True Inc.
  • Allen, A., & Leary, M. R. (2010). Self-compassion, stress, and coping. Social and Personality Psychology Compass.
  • Leary, M.R. et al. (2007) Self-Compassion and Reactions to Unpleasant Self-Relevant Events: The Implications of Treating Oneself Kindly. Journal of Personality.
  • Germer, C. The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself From Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. (New York: The Guilford Press, 2009)

E-3: Perspective-taking intervention

  • Hodges, S. D., Clark, B. A. M., & Myers, M. W. (2011). Better living through perspective taking. In R. Biswas-Diener (Ed.), Positive Psychology as a Mechanism for Social Change. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Press.
  • Social Perspective Taking: A Multi-Dimensional Approach. Harvard Graduate School of Education: Usable Knowledge.

E-4: Benefits of empathy with spouse

  • Wilcox, B. (2011). The National Marriage Project: The state of our unions. http://nationalmarriageproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Union_2011.pdf

E-5: Benefits of empathy with kids

  • Barnett, M. A.; King, L. M.; Howard, J. A.; & Dino, G. A. (1980). Empathy in young children: Relation to parents' empathy, affection, and emphasis on the feelings of others. Developmental Psychology.
  • Clarke, P. (1984). What Kind of Discipline is Most Likely to Lead to Empathic Behaviour in Classrooms? History and Social Science Teacher.
  • Grienenberger, J. Kelly, K. & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother–infant affective communication, and infant attachment: Exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attachment & Human Development.

E-6: Perspective-taking and the self

  • Davis, M. H., Conklin, L., Smith, A., & Luce, C. (1996). Effect of perspective-taking on the cognitive representation of persons: A merging of self and other. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

E-7: Empathy and socioeconomic factors

  • Stellar, J., Manzo, V., Kraus, M. W., & Keltner, D. (2012). Class and compassion: Socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering. Emotion.

E-8: Empathy in relationships

  • Arriaga, X.B. and Rusbault, C. (1998). Standing in my partner's shoes: Partner perspective taking and reactions to accommodative dilemmas. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • Franzoi, S; Davis, M; & Young, R. (1985).The effects of private self-consciousness and perspective taking on satisfaction in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Cohen, S., Schulz, M.S., Weiss, E. & Waldinger, R.J. (2012). Eye of the beholder: The individual and dyadic contributions of empathic accuracy and perceived empathic effort to relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology.

E-9: Human inclination to help others

  • Rand, D.G., Greene, J.D. & Nowak, M.A. (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature.
  • Warneken, F. & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science.

E-10: Empathy and health

  • Pace, T.W.W., Negi, L.T., & Adame, D.D. Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and psychological response to stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology.

E-11: Comforting and empathizing with someone with your ailment may reduce own pain

  • Post, Stephen. (2008). Why Good Things Happen to Good People: How to Live a Longer, Healthier, Happier Life by the Simple Act of Giving. Broadway Books.

E-12: When lowering expectations can be a good thing

  • Weiner, Eric. (2009). "Lowered Expectations." New York Times. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/19/lowered-expectations/?ref=ericweiner

E-13: Encouraging empathy and perspective-taking in kids

  • Buckley, N., Siegel, L.S. & Ness, S. (1979). Egocentrism, empathy, and altruistic behavior in young children. Developmental Psychology.

E-14: Benefits of self-compassion exercises

  • Shapira, L.B. & Mongrain, M. (2010). The benefits of self-compassion and optimism exercises for individuals vulnerable to depression. The Journal of Positive Psychology.

E-15: Acting compassionately to others boosts self-compassion

  • Breines, J.G. & Chen, S. (2013). Activating the inner caregiver: The role of support-giving schemas in increasing state self-compassion.” Journal of Experimental Psychology.

E-16: Self-compassion promotes healthy eating behaviors

  • Adams, C.E. & Leary, M.R. (2007). Promoting self-compassionate attitudes toward eating among restrictive and guilty eaters. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

E-17: Self-compassion and threat response in self-critical people

  • Longe, O., Maratos, F. A., Gilbert, P., et al. (2010). Having a word with yourself: Neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Neuroimage.
  • Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Matos, M., & Rivis, A. (2011). Fears of compassion: Development of three self-report measures. Psychology And Psychotherapy: Theory, Research And Practice.

E-18: Empathy declining in young people

  • Zaki, Jamil. (2011). "What, Me Care? Young are Less Empathetic." Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=what-me-care

E-19: Eye contact sends a signal to the brain that triggers empathy and rapport

  • Achor, Shawn. (2010). The Happiness Advantage: The Seven Principles of Positive Psychology That Fuel Success and Performance at Work. New York: Crown Business.

E-20: We read emotions through facial expressions

  • Mehrabian, A. (1972) Nonverbal Communication. Aldine-Atherton.

E-21: Self-affirmation improves problem solving under stress

  • Creswell JD, Dutcher JM, Klein WMP, Harris PR, Levine JM (2013) Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress. PLoS ONE.

E-22: We can guess how others view us, even when their perceptions are not how we see ourselves

  • Carlson, E., Vazire, S., Furr, R.M. (2011) Meta-Insight: Do people really know how others see them? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

E-23: Self-reflection is positively correlated with empathy for others

  • Joireman, J.A., Parrott, L. & Hammersla, J. (2002). Empathy and self-absorption paradox: Support for the distinction between self-rumination and self-reflection. Self and Identity.

E-24: Messages are more powerful when delivered by someone we connect with

  • Grant, Adam. (2013) Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Success. Viking Adult.

E-25: Recognizing your contributions is an opportunity to see and feel your agency (being able to make things happen)

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

Other

H-1: The brain's negativity bias phenomenon

  • Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, C. & Vohs, K.D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology.
  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.
  • Rozin, P., Royzman, E. (2001) Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion. Personality & Social Psychology Review.

H-2: The brain's plasticity

  • Pascual-Leone, A., Amedi, A., Fregni, F., & Merabet, L. B. (2005). The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience.
  • Pascual-Leone, A., Freitas, C., Oberman, L., Horvath, J. C., Halko, M., Eldaief, M. et al. (2011). Characterizing brain cortical plasticity and network dynamics across the age-span in health and disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI. Brain Topography.

H-3: Genes, circumstances, and intentional activity factor into overall happiness

  • Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2008). The How of Happiness. Penguin Books.

H-4: Hedonic treadmill and social comparison

  • Larsen, J.T., & McKibban, A.R. (2008). Is happiness having what you want, wanting what you have, or both? Psychological Sceince.
  • Lyubomirsky, S. & Ross, L. (1997). Hedonic consequences of social comparison: A contrast of happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Taylor, S.E. & Lobel, M. (1989). Social comparison activity under threat: Downward evaluation and upward contact. Psychological Review.
  • Buunk, B.P. et al. (1990). The affective consequences of social comparison: Either direction has its ups and downs. JPSP.
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K.L. & Kasri, F. (2001). Responses to hedonically conflicting social comparisons: Comparing happy and unhappy people. European Journal of Social Psychology.

H-5: Is happiness having what you want, wanting what you have, or both?

  • Brickman, P., Coates, D. & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Larsen, J.T., & McKibban, A.R. (2008). Is happiness having what you want, wanting what you have, or both? Psychological Sceince.
  • Otake, K., Shimai, S., Tanaka-Matsumi, J., et al (2006). Happy people become happier through kindness: a counting kindnesses intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Buchanan, K.E. & Bardi, A. (2010). Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction. Journal of Social Psychology.
  • Krueger, A.B.., Kahneman, D., Schkade, D., Schwarz, N. & Stone, A.A. (2008). National Time Accounting: The Currency of Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

H-6: "Upward Spiral" effect

  • Fredrickson, B.L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science.

H-7: 5:1 theory

  • Driver, J. L. & Gottman, J. M. (2004). Daily marital interactions and positive affect during marital conflict among newlywed couples. Family Process.
  • Gottman, John and Silver, Nan (2000). The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work. New York: Three Rivers Press.
  • Gottman, J. M., Driver, J. & Tabares, A. T. (2002). Building the sound marital house: An empirically derived couple therapy. In Gurman, A.S. & Jacobson, N. S. (Eds.), Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy. New York: Guilford.
  • Gottman, J. M. & Levenson, R. W. (2002). A two-factor model for predicting when a couple will divorce: Exploratory analysis using 14-year longitudinal data. Family Process.
  • Gottman, J. M. & Notarius, C. I. (2002). Marital research in the 20th century and a research agenda for the 21st century. Family Process.
  • Gottman, J. M. & Carrere, S. (2000). "Welcome to the love lab." Psychology Today.

H-8: Health benefits of supportive relationships

  • Siegel, Daniel J. (2012). The Developing Mind: How Relationships and the Brain Interact to Shape Who We Are. (2nd edition). New York: Guilford Press.

H-9: Happiness spreads over social networks

  • Fowler, J.H. & Christakis, N.A. (2008). The dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal.

H-10: Brain benefits of social connections

  • Siegel, Daniel J. (2012). The Developing Mind: How Relationships and the Brain Interact to Shape Who We Are. (2nd edition). New York: Guilford Press.

H-11: Health benefits of social connections

  • Berkman, L. & Syme, S. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology
  • Giles L.C., Glonek, G.F.V., Luszcz, M.A., et al (2005). Effect of social networks on 10 year survival in very old Australians: The Australian longitudinal study of aging. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health.
  • Giles L.C., Metcalf, P.A., Glonek, G.F., et al. (2004). The effects of social networks on disability in older Australians. Journal of Aging Health.
  • de Leon, C.F.M., Glass, T.A., Beckett, L.A., et al (1999). Social networks and disability transitions across eight intervals of yearly data in the New Haven EPESE. Journals of Gerontology.
  • Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Ybarra, O. et al. (2008). Mental exercising through simple socializing: Social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • Cohen, S., Brissette, I., Skoner, D.P. & Doyle, W.J. (2000). Social integration and health: The case of the common cold. Journal of Social Structure.
  • Blackmore, E.R. et al. (2007). Major depressive episodes and work stress: Results from a national population survey. American Journal of Public Health.
  • Berkman, L.F., Leo-Summers, L & Horwitz, R.I. (1992). Emotional support and survival after myocardial infarcation. A prospective-population-based study of the elderly. Annals of Internal Medicine.

H-12: Resilience benefits from social connections

  • Folkman, S., Lazarus, R.S., et al. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcome. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. Oxford University Press. In Pervin, L. A. (Ed.). Handbook of personality: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford.
  • Bolger, N. (1990). Coping as a Personality Process: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-13: The exposure effect

  • Zajonc, R.B. (2011). Mere exposure: A gateway to the subliminal. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

H-14: Attachment as a fundamental human motivation

  • Baumeister, R.F. & Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin.

H-15: "Triadic Closure" phenomenon

  • Georg Simmel, originator of the Triadic Closure concept. "On Facebook, scholars link up with data." by Stephanie Rosenbloom. New York Times, 2007.
  • Easley, David and Kleinberg, Jon (2010). Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World. Cornell, NY: Cambridge University.
  • Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology.

H-16: Our well-being is dependent on the the happiness of our social circle

  • Fowler, J.H. & Christakis, N.A. (2008). The dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal.

H-17: Benefits of participating in novel experiences

  • Strong, G. & Aron, A. (2006). The effect of shared participation in novel and challenging activities on experienced relationship quality: Is it mediated by high positive affect? In K.D. Vohs & E.J. Finkel (Eds.) Intrapersonal Processes in Interpersonal Relationships. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Finke, R.A. (1990). Creative Imagery: Discoveries and Inventions in Visualization. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Lewandowski, G. W. & Aron, A. (2004). Distinguishing arousal from novelty and challenge in initial romantic attraction between strangers. Social Behavior and Personality.

H-18: Benefits of play

  • Krueger, Alan B.; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David; Schwarz, Norbert & Stone, Arthur A. (2008). National Time Accounting: The Currency of Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Brown, S. (2009). Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul. New York: Penguin Group.
  • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolution-the-self/201004/the-purpose-purposelessness-part-1-4
  • http://www.psychologytoday.com/collections/201301/when-work-is-play/the-value-play
  • Dugatkin, Lee Alan. (2002). Prancing Primates, Turtle with Toys: It’s More Than Just (Animal) Play. Cerebrum.
  • Smith, P.K. (1982) Does play matter. Functional and evolutionary aspects of animal and human play. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
  • Gray, P. (2009). Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence. American Journal of Play.
  • Proyer, R.T. and Ruch, W. (2011) The virtuousness of adult playfulness: the relation of playfulness with strengths of character. The Psychology of Well-Being.

H-19: Benefits of balancing play and work

  • Krueger, Alan B.; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David; Schwarz, Norbert & Stone, Arthur A. (2008). National Time Accounting: The Currency of Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

H-20: Acting extroverted vs. being extroverted

  • Fleeson, W., Malanos, A.B. & Achille, N.M. (2002). An intraindividual process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted as “good” as being extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324144304578621951399427408

H-21: The impact of smiling

  • Bernstein, D. A.,et al (2000). Impact of smiling. in Psychology (5th ed.), Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Davis, S. F., & Palladino, J. J. (2000). Impact of a smile. Psychology (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Kraft TL, Pressman SD, (2012) Grin and bear it: the influence of manipulated facial expression on the stress response. Psychological Science.
  • Pugh, S.D. (2001) Service with a smile: Emotional contagion in the service encounter. Academy of Management Journal.

H-22: Spouse's happiness boost improves one's own happiness

  • Fowler, J.H. & Christakis, N.A. (2008). The dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal.

H-23: Good marriage makes for better sex

  • Wilcox, B. (2011). The National Marriage Project. The State of Our Unions: Marriage in America, 2011. Study with the University of Virginia: Virginia, Bradfor Wilcox. http://nationalmarriageproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Union_2011.pdf

H-24: Impact of parenthood on marriage

  • Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K. and Foster, C. A. (2003). Parenthood and marital satisfaction: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Marriage and Family.
  • Bianchi, S. M., & Raley, S. (2005). Time allocation in working families. In S. M. Bianchi, L. M. Casper, & R. B. King (Eds.), Work, Family, Health, and Well-being. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Bianchi, S. M., Robinson, J.P., & Milkie, M. (2006). Changing rhythms of American family life. Journal of Marriage and Family.
  • Bianchi, S.M., Wight, V.R., & Raley, S.B. (2005). Maternal employment and family caregiving: Rethinking time with children in the ATUS. ATUS Early Results Conference, Bethesda, MD.
  • Doss, B.D.; Rhoades, G.K.; Stanley, S.M.; & Markman, H.J. (2009). The effect of the transition to parenthood on relationship quality: An 8-year prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Kahneman, D. Krueger, A.B. Schkade, et al. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science.
  • Powdthavee, N. & Vignoles, A. (2007). Mental health of parents and life satisfaction of children: A within-family analysis of intergenerational transmission of well-being. Social Indicators Research.

H-25: Self control in children predicts health and well-being

  • Moffitt, T.E. et al (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS.

H-26: Optimal number of social connections

  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1079997/The-secret-happiness-Having-10-good-friends.html

H-27: Negative effects of stress on cognition

  • Lupien, S.J., Maheu, F., Tu, M., Fiocco, A. & Schramek, T.E. (2007). The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: Implications for the field of brain and cognition. Brain and Cognition.

H-28: Factors affecting happiness measurement

  • Kahneman, D. & Krueger, A.B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. The Journal of Economic Perspectives.

H-29: Income and happiness

  • Kahneman, D. & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. PNAS.
  • Kahneman, D., Krueger, A.B., Schkade, D. et al. (2006). Would you be happier if you were richer?: A focusing illusion. Science.
  • Kristof, Kathy M. (2005). "Study: Money can't buy happiness, security either." Los Angeles Times.

H-30: Characteristics of creative people

  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1996). Creativity: The Work and Lives of 91 Eminent People. HarperCollins.
  • Feist, G.J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review.

H-31: Couples spend less time together than in the past

  • McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., Brashears, M.E. (2006). Social isolation in America: changes in core discussion networks over two decades. American Sociological Review.
  • http://nymag.com/news/features/67024/

H-32: Strong social relationships distinguish the happiest 10% from everyone else

  • Diener, E. & Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science.

H-33: Happiness and social interaction

  • Mehl, M. R., Holleran, S.E., Vazire, S. & Clark, C.S. (2010). Eavesdropping on happiness: well-being is related to having less small talk and more substantive conversations. Psychological Science.

H-34: Positive emotions and mood induction

  • Fredrickson, B. L. & Levenson, R. W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion.
  • Fredrickson B.L., Mancuso, R.A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M.M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion.

H-35: Benefits of exercise

  • Moore, S.C. et. al. (2012). Leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity and mortality: A large pooled cohort analysis. PLoS.
  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.
  • Whang, W. (2006). Physical exertion, exercise, and sudden cardiac death in women. Journal of the American Medical Association.

H-36: Objects associated with positive memories lifts mood

  • Neshat-Doost, H.T., Dalgleish, T., Yule, W., et al. (2013). Enhancing autobiographical memory specificity through cognitive training: An intervention for depression translated from basic science. Clinical Psychological Science.

H-37: Depressed mood and negative memories

  • Clark, D.M. & Teasdale, J.D. (1982). Diurnal variation in clinical depression and accessibility of memories of positive and negative experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
  • Teasdale, J.D. & Fogarty, S.J. (1979). Differential effects of induced mood of retrieval of pleasant and unpleasant events from episodic memory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

H-38: Bucket lists

  • The Legacy Project at Cornell University http://legacyproject.human.cornell.edu/2012/08/some-wise-advice-from-some-wise-elders/

H-39: The "broaden and build" theory

  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist.
  • Fredrickson, B.L. (2000) Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention and Treatment.

H-40: Music, memories, and mood

  • Cady, E., Harris, R., & Knappenberger, B. (2008). Using music to cue autobiographical memories of different lifetime periods. Psychology of Music.
  • Nadler, R.T., Rabi, R., Minda, J.P., (2010). Better Mood and Better Performance: Learning Rule Described Categories Is Enhanced by Positive Mood. Psychological Science.

H-41: Unpleasant coworkers create ripple effect

  • Ferguson, M. (2011). You cannot leave it at the office: Spillover and crossover of coworker incivility. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

H-42: Priming

  • Bargh, J.A., Chen, M. & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Williams, L.E. & Bargh, J.A. (2008). Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth. Science.
  • Eitam, B., Hassin, R.R. & Schul, Y. (2008). Nonconscious goal pursuit in novel environments. Psychological Science.

H-43: The power of scent

  • Holland, R.W., Hendriks, M. & Aarts, H. (2005). Smells like clean spirit: Nonconscious effects of scent on cognition and behavior. Psychological Science.
  • Hermann, A., Zidansek, M., Sprott, D.E. & Spangenberg, E.R. (2013). The power of simplicity: Processing fluency and the effects of olfactory cues on retail sales. Journal of Retailing.

H-44: Positive emotions during bereavement

  • Stein, N., Folkman, S. et al. (1997). Appraisal and goal processes as predictors of psychological well-being in bereaved caregivers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-45: Acting powerful can boost confidence and affect social evaluations

  • Guillory, L.E. & Gruenfeld, D.H. Fake it till you make it: How acting powerful leads to feeling empowered. Stanford Graduate School of Business.
  • Cuddy, A.J.C., Carney, D.R. & Yap, A.J. (2010). Power posing: Brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance. Psychological Science.
  • Cuddy, A. Wilmuth, C. & Carney, D. (2012) Preparatory power posing affects performance and outcomes in social evaluations. Harvard Business School Working Paper.

H-46: Our brains crave novelty

  • Gallagher, Winifred. (2011). New: Understanding Our Need for Novelty and Change.

H-47: Positivity trains the brain to identify opportunities

  • Seifart, C. & Patalano, A. (2001). Opportunism in memory: Preparing for chance encounters. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

H-48: Neophobia may contribute to high death rate

  • Dossey, Larry. (2006). The Extra-Ordinary Healing Power of Ordinary Things. Harmony Books.

H-49: Most satisfying jobs

  • National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/07/070417.jobs.shtml

H-50: Friends make challenges seem less daunting

  • Schnall, S., Harber, K.D., Stefanucci, J.K. & Proffitt, D.R. (2008). Social support and the perception of geographical slant. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

H-51: Happiness and how we spend our time

  • Zimbardo P. and Boyd J. (1999) Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-difference metric. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Chancellor, J. & Lyubomirsky, S. (in press). Money for happiness: The hedonic benefits of thrift. In M. Tatzel (Ed.), Consumer’s Dilemma: The Search for Well-Being in the Material World. New York: Springer

H-52: People with strong social support healthier, live longer

  • House, J.S., Landis, K.R. & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science.
  • Kroenke, C.H., Kubzansky, L.D. et al. (2006). Social networks, social support, and survival after breast cancer diganosis. Journal of Clinical Oncology.
  • Cable, N., Bartley, M., Chandola, T., & Sackler, A. (2012). Friends are equally important to men and women, but family matters more for men's well-being. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.
  • Perissinotto, C.M., Cenzer, I.S. & Covinsky, K.E. (2012). Loneliness in older persons: A predictor of functional decline and death. JAMA Internal Medicine.

H-53: People underestimate others' negative emotions

  • Jordan, A.H., Monin, B., Dweck, C.S. et al. (2011). Misery has more company than people think: Underestimating the prevalence of others' negative emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

H-54: Ruminating is harmful to health

  • Worthington, Jr., Everett L. (Ed.) (2005). Handbook of Forgiveness. Routledge.
  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B.E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking Rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

H-55: Importance of "compassionate love" in relationships

  • Bernstein, Elizabeth. (2013). "Small Acts, Big Love: People Who Put Their Mates' Needs First Make Themselves Happier Too." Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323696404578297942503592524.html?mod=WSJ_WSJ_US_News_10_1

H-56: Is social similarity important?

  • Bahns, A.J., Pickett, K.M. & Crandall, C.S. (2012). Social ecology of similarity: Big schools, small schools and social relationships. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations.

H-57: Huggers are happier

  • Clipman, J.M. (1999). A hug a day keeps the blues away: The effect of daily hugs on subjective well-being in college students. Eastern Psychological Association 70th Annual Meeting.

H-58: Thinking about money makes us isolate ourselves

  • Vohs, K.D., Mead, N.L. & Goode, M.R. (2008). Merely activating the concept of money changes personal and interpersonal behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

H-59: People get happier as they get older

  • Easterlin, R.A. (2006). Life cycle happiness and its sources: Intersections of psychology, economics, and demography. Journal of Economic Psychology.
  • Yang, Y. (2008) Social Inequalities in Happiness in the United States, 1972 to 2004: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis. American Sociological Review.
  • Isaacowitz, D.M. & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2012). Linking process and outcome in the study of emotion and aging. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

H-60: Does marriage make people happier? Yes, but only for awhile

  • Kelly Musick, Larry Bumpass. (2012). Reexamining the case for marriage: Union formation and changes in well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family.

H-61: Sex predicts happiness among married seniors

  • Jackson, A. General Social Surveys results presented at the Gerontological Society of America’s 64th Annual Scientific Meeting.

H-62: Happiest states in the U.S.

  • Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index for 2012 http://www.gallup.com/poll/160730/fourth-year-hawaii-no-wellbeing-last.aspx

H-63: Happy people healthier; live longer

  • Diener, E. & Chan, M.Y. (2010). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being.

H-64: Emotions a better predictor of health than whether fundamental needs are met

  • Pressman, S.D., Gallgher, M.W. & Lopez, S.J. (2013). Is the emotion-health connection a first-world problem? Psychological Science.

H-65: Best friends buffer us against negative experiences

  • Ryan E. Adams, Jonathan Bruce Santo, William M. Bukowski. (2011). The presence of a best friend buffers the effects of negative experiences. Developmental Psychology.

H-66: Many parents happier than non-parents

  • Nelson, S.K., Kushlev, K., English, T., Dunn, E.W. & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). In defense of parenthood: Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science.
  • http://www.parenting.com/article/how-to-be-a-happier-mom

H-67: Emotional reactivity to daily stressors associated with increased risk of chronic health problems

  • Piazza, J.R., Charles, S.T., Sliwinski, M.J. et al. (2013). Affective reactivity to daily stressors and long-term risk of reporting a chronic physical health condition. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

H-68: Older adults have happier relationships

  • Fingerman, K. L. & Charles, S. T. (2010). It takes two to tango: Why older people have the best relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

H-69: Behavior of happy couples

  • Gottman, J.M. (1998) Psychology and the study of marital processes. Annual Review of Psychology.

H-70: Men have a harder time dealing with kids leaving home

  • Clay, Rebecca A. (2003). "An empty nest can promote freedom, improved relationships." Monitor on Psychology. http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr03/pluses.aspx

H-71: Parent/child relationship improves after kids move out

  • Fingerman, K. (2000) “We had a nice little chat”: Age and generational differences in mothers’ and daughters’ descriptions of enjoyable visits. Journal of Gerontology.

H-72: Marriage improves after kids move out

  • Gorchoff, S.M., John, O.P., Helson, R. (2008) Contextualizing change in marital satisfaction during middle age: an 18-year longitudinal study. Psychological Science.

H-73: Exercise reduces motivation for food

  • LeCheminant, J. & Larson, M. (2012). https://news.byu.edu/archive12-sep-foodmotivation.aspx

H-74: Characteristics of happy families

  • http://www.cleoslab.org/resources/happy_families.pdf

H-75: Life regrets of the dying

  • Ware, Bronnie. (2012). The Top Five Regrets of the Dying: A Life Transformed by the Daily Departing. Hay House.

H-76: Which professions score high in emotional health?

  • http://www.gallup.com/poll/161516/teachers-love-lives-struggle-workplace.aspx

H-77: Cognitive-behavioral strategy of disputation

  • Clark, David A. & Beck, Aaron T. The Anxiety and Worry Workbook: The Cognitive Behavioral Solution.

H-78: Effects of feedback on self-confidence

  • McCarty, P. (1986). Effects of feedback on the self-confidence of men and women. Academy of Management Journal.

H-79: Helping kids resolve conflict on their own

  • Chen, D.W. (2003). Preventing violence by promoting the development of competent conflict resolution skills: Exploring roles and responsibilities. Early Childhood Education Journal.

H-80: Happiness and how you spend your time

  • Zimbardo P. and Boyd J. (1999) Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-difference metric. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-81: The importance of "me" time in relationships

  • The Early Years of Marriage (EYM) Study at the University of Michigan, http://projects.isr.umich.edu/eym/
  • http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/life/forget-sex-the-secret-to-a-longlasting-relationship-is-space-20121105-28tle.html

H-82: Maximizing vs. Satisficing

  • Schwartz, B., Ward, A., Monterosso, J., et al. (2002) Maximizing Versus Satisficing: Happiness is a matter of choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Schwartz, Barry. (2005). The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less. Harper Perennial.

H-83: Exercise boosts self-control

  • Oaten, M. and Cheng, K. (2006) Longitudinal gains in self-regulation from regular physical exercise. British Journal of Health Psychology.
  • Baumeister, R. Gailliot, M., DeWall, C.N., et al (2006) Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Journal of Personality.

H-84: Self-regulation and the ability to build up willpower

  • Muraven, M. and Baumeister, R.F. (2000) Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin.

H-85: A good relationship with adults can reverse effects of stress in kids

  • Center on the Developing Child: Harvard University. "Toxic Stress: The Facts" http://developingchild.harvard.edu/topics/science_of_early_childhood/toxic_stress_response/

H-86: Methods of stress reduction

  • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-mark-hyman/stress-tips_b_3178949.html

H-87: Parents' relationship with each other impacts kids' well-being

  • Cummings E.M., George, M.R., McCoy, K.P., Davies, P.T. (2012). Interparental conflict in kindergarten and adolescent adjustment: prospective investigation of emotional security as an explanatory mechanism. Child Development.
  • http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2012/06/15/parents-fighting-may-have-long-lasting-effect-on-kids
  • Cummings, E.M., Davies, P.T. (2002). Effects of marital conflict on children: recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry.
  • Ellis, B.J., & Garber, J. (2000). Psychosocial antecedents of variation in girls' pubertal timing: Maternal depression, stepfather presence, and marital and family stress. Child Development.
  • Cox, M.J., Paley, B., & Harter, K. (2001). Interparental conflict and parent-child relationships. In J. Grych & F. Fincham (Eds.), Child Development and Interparental Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • El-Sheikh, M., & Harger, J. (2001). Appraisals of marital conflict and children's adjustment, health, and physiological reactivity. Developmental Psychology.

H-88: Most children of divorced parents are emotionally well-adjusted

  • Kelly, J.B., Emery, R.E. (2003). Children’s adjustment following divorce: Risk and resilience perspectives. Family Relations.

H-89: Happiness in father-daughter relationship

  • Barrett, E.L., Morman, M.T. (2013). Turning points of closeness in the father/daughter relationship. Human Communication.

H-90: The risk of rewarding kids with material goods

  • http://www.aicpa.org/press/pressreleases/2012/pages/aicpa-survey-reveals-what-parents-pay-kids-for-allowance-grades.aspx
  • http://www.tip.duke.edu/node/929
  • Warneken, F. & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science.
  • http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2012/04/24/parents-reward-children-junk-food_n_1448128.html?just_reloaded=1
  • http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/11/14/does-rewarding-children-backfire/

H-91: Teaching that intelligence is malleable has been shown to improve academic achievement

  • Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development.
  • Good, C., Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving adolescents’ standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.

H-92: Stress reduction ranks at bottom of skills most parents possess

  • Epstein, Robert. (2010). "What Makes a Good Parent?" Scientific American Mind.

H-93: After positive mood induction, people pay more attention to positive stimuli in environment

  • Wadlinger, H.A. & Isaacowitz, D.M. (2010). Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli. Motivation and Emotion.
  • Fredrickson, B.L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion.

H-94: The truth about our worries: 85% have good outcomes

  • Leahy, Robert. (2008). How to free yourself from worry. Cognitive Therapy.

H-95: Novel experiences can improve memory, aid learning

  • Bunzeck, N. & Duzel, E. (2006). Absolute coding of stimulus novelty in the human substantia nigra/VTA. Neuron. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/news-releases-archive/newlearning

H-96: Effects of parental monitoring on adolescents' risk behaviors

  • DiClemente, R.J., Wingood, G.M. et al. (2001) Parental monitoring: Association with adolescents' risk behaviors. Pediatrics.
  • Shakya, H.B., Christakis, N.A., Fowler, J.H. (2012) Parental influence on substance use in adolescent social networks. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.

H-97: Making happy movements can boost your mood

  • Shafir, T., Taylor, S.F., et al. (2013). Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements. Brain and Cognition.

H-98: Aerobic exercise boosts mood

  • Steptoe, A. & Cox, S. (1988). Acute effects of aerobic exercise on mood. Health Psychology.

H-99: Marital conflicts affect subsequent family interactions

  • Kitzmann, K.M. (2000). Effects of marital conflict on subsequent triadic family interactions and parenting. Developmental Psychology.

H-100: Effects of peer relationships on adolescents' risk behaviors

  • Kreager, D.A., Haynie, D.L. (2011) Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and drinking diffusion in adolescent peer networks. American Sociological Review.

H-101: Teens benefit by getting involved in organizations and other positive communities

  • Lerner, R.M., Almerigi, J.B., Theokas, C., et al (2005) Positive youth development: A view of the issues. Journal of Early Adolescence.

H-102: Teens seek out inspiring adults as mentors

  • Lindsey, C.R., Kalafat, J. (1998) Adolescents’ Views of Preferred Helper Characteristics and Barriers to Seeking Help from School-Based Adults. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation.

H-103: Our brains keep growing after adolescence

  • Sowell, E.R., Thompson, P.M., Holmes, C.J., et al (1999) In vivo evidence for postadolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nature Neuroscience.

H-104: The teen brain

  • http://www.livescience.com/13850-10-facts-parent-teen-brain.html

H-105: Some forms of peer pressure activate reward centers in teens' brains

  • Chein, J., Albert, D., O’Brien, L., et al (2011) Peers increase adolescent risk taking by enhancing activity in the brain’s reward circuitry. Developmental Science.

H-106: Sharing fitness progress with others helps you reach exercise goals

  • Annesi, J. J. (2002). Goal-setting protocol in adherence to exercise by Italian adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills.

H-107: Happy people more successful across life domains; make more money

  • Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin.
  • Vaillant, G. (2009). Yes, I stand by my words, "Happiness equals love—full stop." Positive Psychology News Daily.

H-108: Single parenting

  • http://www.k-state.edu/media/newsreleases/jun12/singlemothers61912.html

H-109: Loneliness prevents people from trying new things

  • Baumeister, R. F., DeWall, C. N., Ciaracco, N. J., & Twenge, J. M. (2005). Social exclusion impairs self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-110: Sleep deprivation and stress

  • Coren, S. (1998). “Sleep Deprivation, Psychosis, and Mental Efficiency.” Psychiatric Times. www.psychiatrictimes.com

H-111: Strategies to prevent insomnia

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

H-112: How diet affects stress levels

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.
  • Food and Mood Project: http://www.mind.org.uk/foodandmood/

H-113: Social isolation and loneliness increase stress levels

  • Smith-Lovin, L. and McPherson, M. (2006). Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks over Two Decades. American Sociological Review.
  • S. Pressman et al. (2006). Loneliness, Social Network Size, and Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in College Freshmen. Health Psychology.

H-114: Kissing helps combat stress

  • Bloom, Howard. (1997). “Isolation, The Ultimate Poison.” The Lucifer Principle: A Scientific Expedition into the Forces of History. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

H-115: Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps to prevent depression and anxiety

  • Seligman, M.E.P., Schulamn, P., & DeRubeis, R.J. (1999). The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety. Prevention & Treatment.

H-116: Walking through doorways resets emotions and causes forgetting

  • http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-walking-through-doorway-makes-you-forget
  • Radvansky, G.A., Krawietz, S.A, & Tamplin, A. K. (2011). Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Further explorations. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.

H-117: Social comparisons have negative long-term personal and relational consequences

  • White, J.B., Langer, E.J., Yariv, L., & Welch, J.C. (2006). Frequent Social Comparisons and Destructive Emotions and Behaviors: The Dark Side of Social Comparisons. Journal of Adult Development.
  • Bauer, I. & Wrosch, C. (2011). Making Up for Lost Opportunities: The Protective Role of Downward Social Comparisons for Coping With Regrets Across Adulthood. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

H-118: Writing down and then throwing away negative thoughts helps alleviate negative feelings

  • Briñol, P., Gascoó, M., Petter, R.E., & Horcajo, J. (2012). Treating Thoughts as Material Objects Can Increase or Decrease Their Impact on Evaluation. Psychological Science.
  • http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/matthoughts.htm

H-119: Repeating words reduces their power

  • Luoma, H. & Hayes, S.C. (2009). Cognitive Defusion. In W. O'Donahue, & J. E. Fisher, (Eds.), Empirically supported techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy: A step-by-step guide for clinicians.

H-120: Malicious and benign envy

  • Kebede, B. & Zizzo, D.J. (2011) Envy and Agricultural Innovation: An Experimental Case Study from Ethiopia. Economic and Social Research Council.
  • Van, N.V.D., Zeelenberg, M. & Pieters, R. (2011). Why Envy Outperforms Admiration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
  • http://www.oprah.com/spirit/Benefits-of-Jealousy-Envying-Friends

H-121: Screening measures for depression

  • Zauszniewski, J.A., & Bekhet, A.K. (2012). Screening measure for early detection of depressive symptoms: the depressive cognition scale. Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University.

H-122: Negative emotions are key to well-being

  • Rodriguez, T. (2013) Negative Emotions Are Key to Well-Being. Scientific American.

H-123: Intrusive Thoughts

  • Rachman, S. & de Silva, P. (1978). Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy.

H-124: Perception affects well-being

  • Can What You Think Affect How You Feel? (2013). UW Health, University of Wisconsin. http://www.uwhealth.org/news/can-what-you-think-affect-how-you-feel/41007

H-125: Recognizing the root of pessimistic thinking

  • Magyar-Moe, J.L. (2009). Therapist's Guide to Positive Psychological Interventions. Chapter 4: Positive Psychological Interventions. http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780123745170/Chapter%204/Chapter_4_Worksheet_4.13.pdf

H-126: Perception changes brain patterns

  • Blakeslee, S. (1998). Placebos prove so powerful even experts are surprised. The New York TImes.
  • Langer, E. (2009). Counterclockwise: Mindful Health and the Power of Possibility.

H-127: Strong social connections lead to workplace success

  • Campion, M.A, Papper, E.M., & Medsker, G.J. (1996). Relations between work team characteristics and effectiveness: A replication and extension. Personnel Psychology.
  • Holahan, Carole & Sears, Robert. (1995). The Gifted Group in Later Maturity. Stanford University Press.
  • Bradberry, T. (2009). A bad boss can send you to an early grave. Philanthropy Journal.
  • http://blogs.hbr.org/bregman/2010/07/why-friends-matter-at-work-and.html
  • Campion, M.A, Papper, E.M. & Medsker, G.J. (1996). Relations between work team characteristics and effectiveness: A replication and extension. Personnel Psychology.
  • Heaphy, E. & Dutton, J.E. (2008). Positive social interactions and the human body at work: Linking organizations and physiology. Academy of Management Review.
  • Buckingham, M. & Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York: Simon and Schuster.

H-128: Health benefits of having strong social connections

  • Cacioppo, John T. (2008). Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. W.W. Norton & Co.

H-129: The importance of feeling in control at work

  • Sparr, J.L., & Sonnentag, S. (2008). Feedback environment and well-being at work: The mediating role of personal control and feelings of helplessness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology.
  • Spector, P. (2002). Employee control and occupational stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science.
  • Findley, M.J., & Cooper, H.M. (1983). Locus of control and academic achievement: A literature review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Newburg, D., Kimiecik, J, Durand-Bush, N. & Doell, K. (2002). The role of resonance in performance excellence and life engagement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology.
  • Thompson, C.A. & Prottas, D.J. (2005). Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

H-130: The negative effects of stress at work

  • Maslach, C.. Schaufeli, W., Leiter, M. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology.

H-131: Personality and job satisfaction

  • Saari, L.M., Judge, T.A. (2004) Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction. Human Resources Management.
  • Sonnentag, S. (2012) Psychological Detachment From Work During Leisure Time. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

H-132: The three different work orientations

  • Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rosin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality.

H-133: Making too many choices impairs self-control

  • Vohs, K.D., et al. (2008). Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Schwartz, Barry. (2004). The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less. Harper Perennial.

H-134: Top 3 stress-related symptoms

  • The American Psychological Association’s 2007 Stress in America survey.

H-135: Humans secrete cortisol when surrounded by disarray

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

H-136: Hidden object games can help improve spatial memory

  • Oei, A.C. & Patterson, M.D. (2013). Enhancing cognition with video games: A multiple game training study. PLoS ONE.

H-137: Social interaction at work lowers stress

  • Heaphy, E. & Dutton, J.E. (2008). Positive social interactions and the human body at work: Linking organizations and physiology. Academy of Management Review.
  • Theorell, T., Orth-Gomer, K. & Eneroth, P. (1990). Slow-reacting immunoglobin in relation to social support and changes in job strain: A preliminary note. Psychosomatic Medicine.

H-138: Consistently playing Tetris warps how we view real-world situations

  • Stickgold, R., Malia, A. et al. (2000). Replaying the game: Hypnagogic images in normal and amnesics. Science.

H-139: Making mistakes leads to self-efficacy

  • Lorenzet, S.J., Salas, E. & Tannenbaum, S.I. (2005). Benefiting from mistakes: The impact of guided errors on learning, performance, and self-efficacy. Human Resource Development Quarterly.

H-140: People often bounce back to original levels of happiness after catastrophic events

  • Diener, E., Lucas, R.E. & Scollon, C.N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill: Revising the adaptation theory of well-being.

H-141: Verbal information reduces the power of these negative emotions, enhancing decision-making skills and well-being

  • Zweig, J. (2007). Your Money and Your Brain: How the New Science of Neuroeconomics Can Help Make You Rich. New York: Simon and Schuster.

H-142: Emotions are contagious

  • Barsade, S.G. (2002) The ripple effect: Emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly.
  • Totterdell, P., Kellet, S., Teuchmann, K., et al. (1998) Evidence of mood linkage in work groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Marsden, P. (1998) Memetics and Social Contagion: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Journal of Memetics.

H-143: Expressive people influence others' emotions more

  • Friedman, H., Riggio, R. (1981) Effect of individual differences in nonverbal expressiveness on transmission of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

H-144: Eye contact: Where women and men differ

  • Tannen, D. (1991) You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. Balantine Books.

H-145: Men and women differ in conversational interaction

  • Hirschman, L. (1994) Female–male differences in conversational interaction. Language in Society.

H-146: Language differences between men and women

  • van Baalen, I. (2001) Male and female language: growing together? Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics.

H-147: How men and women view emotional support

  • MacGeorge, E., Graves, A., Feng, B., et al. (2004) The myth of gender cultures: Similarities outweigh differences in men’s and women’s provision of and responses to supportive communication. Sex Roles.

H-148: Commitment to relationship boosts positive self-identity

  • Siebert, D. C., Mutran, E. J., & Reitzes, D. C. (1999). Friendship and social support: The importance of role identity to aging adults. Social Work.

H-149: Effects of multitasking

  • Junco, R., & Cotten, S. R. (2012). No A 4 U: The relationship between multitasking and academic performance. Computers & Education.
  • Stephens, K. K. (2012). Multiple conversations during organizational meetings: Development of the multicommunicating scale. Management Communication Quarterly.
  • Friedman, M. & Ulmer, D. (1985). Treating Type A behavior and your heart. Journal of Human Stress.

H-150: Spending money on experiences makes us happier in long run

  • Van Boven, L., Gilovich, T. (2003) To do or to have? That is the question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Nicolao, L., Irwin, J., Goodman, J. (2009) Happiness for sale: Do experiential purchases make consumers happier than material purchases? Journal of Consumer Research.
  • Dunn, Elizabeth & Norton, Michael. (2013). Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending. Simon & Schuster.

H-151: Time affluence and happiness

  • Kasser, T., Sheldon, K.M. (2008) Time affluence as a path toward personal happiness and ethical business practice: Empirical evidence from four studies. Journal of Business Ethics.
  • Americans Eager to Take Back Their Time http://205.153.117.210/about/polls/timepoll.php
  • Aguiar, M, Hurst, E. (2009) A Summary of Trends in American Time Allocation: 1965-2005. Social Indicators Research.
  • Burke, R., Koyuncu, M., Fiksenbaum, L., et al. (2009) Time affluence, material affluence and well-being among Turkish managers. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal.

H-152: How we think about money

  • Prelec, D., Loewenstein, G. (1998) The Red and the Black: Mental Accounting of Savings and Debt. Marketing Science.
  • Dunn, Elizabeth & Norton, Michael. (2013). Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending. Simon & Schuster.

H-153: Spending money on a home won't make you happier

  • Nakazato, N., Schimmack, U., Oishi, S. (2011) Effect of changes in living conditions on well-being: A prospective top-down bottom-up model. Social Indicators Research.
  • Bucchianeri, G.W. (2011) The American Dream or the American Delusion? The Private and External Benefits of Homeownership. Working paper, University of Pennsylvania.

H-154: Spending on leisure activities increases life satisfaction

  • DeLeire, T., Kalil, A. (2010) Does consumption buy happiness? Evidence from the United States. International Review of Economics.

H-155: Can an expensive car make our commute happier?

  • Schwartz, J.D. (2011) Americans Work 2 Hours Each Day to Pay for Their Cars. Urban Country Bicycle Blog.
  • Dunn, Elizabeth & Norton, Michael. (2013). Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending. Simon & Schuster.

H-156: Viewing our time as money decreases happiness

  • DeVoe, S.E., House, J. (2012) Time, Money, and Happiness: How Does Putting a Price on Time Affect Our Ability to Smell the Roses? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

H-157: We focus on fantasy aspects of big purchases instead of reality

  • Liberman, N., Trope, Y. (2008) The psychology of transcending the here and now. Science.
  • Wilson, T., Wheatley, T., Meyers, J., et al. (2000) Focalism: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-158: Pre-sleep environment can impact stress levels

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

H-159: Body releases cortisol when surrounded by disarray

  • Lee, Roberta. (2010). The Superstress Solution. New York: Random House.

H-160: We tend to have more regrets when we still have opportunities to act

  • Roese, Neal. (2005) If Only: How to Turn Regret Into Opportunity. Broadway.

H-161: Self-esteem plays a factor in whether moods affect our perceptions of ourselves

  • Brown, J.D., Mankowski, T.A. (1993) Self-esteem, mood, and self-evaluation: changes in mood and the way you see you. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-162: Our Facebook profiles are more accurate reflections of ourselves than we think

  • Back, M., Stopfer, J., Vazire, S. et al. (2010) Facebook profiles reflect actual personality,not self-idealization. Psychological Science.

H-163: How people with high vs. low self-esteem seek feedback about themselves

  • Bernichon, T., Cook, K.E., Brown, J.D. (2003) Seeking self-evaluative feedback: the interactive role of global self-esteem and specific self-views. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-164: Perfectionists hold others to high standards, too

  • Flett, G., Besser, A., Davis, R. et al. (2003) Dimensions of perfectionism, unconditional self-acceptance, and depression. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.

H-165: Unfinished tasks take up cognitive attention

  • Greist-Bousquet, S., Schiffman, N. (1992). The effect of task interruption and closure on perceived duration. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society.

H-166: The link between activities that arouse us and the people we meet in that aroused state

  • Dutton, D.G. and Aron, A.P. (1974). Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under conditions of high anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-167: Can stress be good for you?

  • Goldman, B. (June 22, 2012) Study Explains How Stress Can Boost Immune System. Inside Stanford Medicine.
  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.
  • Cahill, L., Gorski, L., Le, K. (2003) Enhanced Human Memory Consolidation with Post-learning Stress: Interaction with the Degree of Arousal at Encoding. Learning and Memory.

H-168: Fundamental attribution error

  • Goldinger, S. D., Kleider, H.M, Azuma, T., & Beike, D.R. (2003). "Blaming the victim" under memory load. Psychological Science.

H-169: The side effects of worrying

  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

H-170: Speaking first is the greatest predictor of whether or not your argument will be perceived as strong

  • Anderson, C., Kilduff, G.J. (2009) Why Do Dominant Personalities Attain Influence in Face-to-Face Groups? The Competence-Signaling Effects of Trait Dominance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-171: Funny people perceived as smarter, more credible, attractive

  • Howrigan, D., MacDonald, K. (2008) Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator. Evolutionary Psychology.
  • Gervais, M., Wilson, D.S. (2005) The Evolution and Functions of Laughter and Humor: A Synthetic Approach. Quarterly Review of Biology.
  • Tang, Y. (2008) The Relationship between Use of Humor by Leaders and R&D Employee Innovative Behavior: Evidence from Taiwan. Asia Pacific Management Review.

H-172: Benefits of seeking others' perspectives

  • Achor, Shawn. (2013). Before Happiness. New York: Crown Business.

H-173: Coffee cup drawing and perspectives

  • Palmer, S.E., Rosch, E., Chase, P. (1981) Canonical Perspective and the Perception of Objects. Attention and Performance.

H-174: For long-term happiness, accept discomfort and uncertainty in the pursuit of memorable experiences

  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P.M. (2010). Strategies of setting and implementing goals. In J.E. Maddux & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundation of clinical psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • http://www.psychologytoday.com/collections/201306/what-happy-people-do-differently/the-surprising-key-satisfaction

H-175: Personality affects the types of food you like

  • Byrnes, N., Hayes, J. (2012) Personality factors predict spicy food liking and intake. Food Quality and Preference.

H-176: We’re happier with purchases we buy to use socially than those we buy to use alone

  • Caprariello, P., Reis, H. (2013) To do, to have, or to share? Valuing experiences over material possessions depends on the involvement of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

H-177: Grow inner strengths by internalizing beneficial experiences

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.
  • Kandel, E.R. (2007) In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Ho, V., et al. (2011) The Cell Biology of Synaptic Plasticity. Science.
  • Feldman, D. (2009) Synaptic Mechanisms for Plasticity in Neocortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience.
  • Mongillo, G., et al. (2008) Synaptic Theory of Working Memory. Science.

H-178: Recalling personal qualities that have helped us in the past can lift our moods and help heal feelings of inadequacy and shame

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

H-179: When our needs are met though experiences of feeling valued, we develop a healthy sense of worth

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

H-180: Experiences specifically tailored to our own wants and needs are the most nourishing

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

H-181: Mental time travel or looking forward to the future enabled our ancestors to plan more effectively

  • Ostby, Y. et al. (2012) Mental Time Travel and Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in the Developing Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

H-182: We can overwrite the negative and erase associations between past negative experiences and related neutral triggers

  • Bouton, M.E. (2004) Context and Behavioral Processes in Extinction. Learning & Memory.
  • Yan-Xue Xue et al. (2012) A Memory Retrieval-Extinction Procedure to Prevent Drug Craving and Relapse. Science.
  • Milton, A.L., Everitt, B.J. (2012) Wiping Drug Memories. Science. Schiller, D. et al (2010) Preventing the Return of Fear in Humans Using Reconsolidation Update Mechanisms. Nature.
  • Monfils, M. et al. (2009) Extinction-Reconsolidation Boundaries: Key to Persistent Attenuation of Fear Memories. Science.

H-183: The true indication of a positive experience is that it leads to happiness and benefit for oneself and others

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.

H-184: If you're easily distracted, take in more stimulating experiences and energizing emotions

  • Hanson, Rick. (2013) Hardwiring Happiness: The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence. Harmony Books.